Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  17     ISSUE:  2  February 2019 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan




Dear Doctor:

Welcome to online bulletin 'e-SQUARE' .

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Chromosome Scanner !", "Exercise with Breaks !", "New Treatment for Chlamydia !", "Migraines without Medicine !", "Brain Clock !", "Fight Diabetes !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Chromosome Scanner !

                                                          'Chromosome scanner' that protects against cancer

Damage to the human DNA can cause unstable genetic material and thus plays a main role in the development of cancer. Therefore, a lot of researchers are trying to learn from the cells' own protection against DNA mutations. Among other things, this is done by quickly and correctly repairing DNA damage and thus avoiding tumor development. For these serious damages, there are two basic repair systems, but only one of them is flawless. If this system is out of function, there is increased risk of developing cancer following from the DNA damage to which cells are constantly exposed. Researcher discovered how the cell launches the flawless system for serious DNA damage repair and thus protects against cancer. This is done using a protein 'scanner', which scans the histones in the cell and on that basis launches the repair process, said by lead researcher. The problem with the two repair systems is that one is much easier and faster for the cell to launch than the other, and therefore the former is used more often. However, it does not work as well as the latter. Here the two cut DNA strings are merely glued back together. The protein that acts like a scanner is called BARD1, and the researchers have known for a long time that it works like a so-called tumor suppressor. However, this is the first discovery of BARD1's scanning function, which tells the BRCA1 protein and thus the cell that a flawless repair system can be launched. If possible, it then launches the BRCA1 function that plays such a vital role in cancer protection. The flawless repair method is also referred to as a homologous recombination. For part of its lifetime the cell contains two identical DNA strings, as it is getting ready to split. This means that the cell actually holds the solution to its own damage.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2019

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Exercise with Breaks !

                                     Morning exercise with short walking breaks helps control blood pressure

Thirty minutes of morning exercise lowers blood pressure for the rest of the day among older men and women who are overweight or obese. And women who take brief, frequent breaks from sitting throughout the day can enhance the blood pressure benefits of morning exercise even more, according to new researches. The researchers found that average blood pressure, especially systolic blood pressure, was reduced among both men and women who took part in morning exercise, compared to when they did not exercise. There was further benefit a significant reduction in average systolic blood pressure for women when they combined morning exercise with frequent breaks from sitting throughout the day. For men, there was no additional blood pressure benefit to taking frequent breaks from sitting. The researchers do not know why there was a gender difference, but think it may be a combination of factors, including varying adrenaline responses to exercise and the fact that all women in the study were post-menopausal a time when women are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Breaks in sitting have been shown in other studies to have a greater beneficial effect on blood pressure among groups with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The researchers conclude that the benefits of exercise on lowering blood pressure can be enhanced by avoiding prolonged periods of sitting and add that future studies should specifically test for gender differences in blood pressure with breaks in sitting alone. Future studies would be needed to see if the same benefits would apply to younger people and those who are not overweight.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2019

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New Treatment for Chlamydia !

                                                                                    A new way to prevent and treat Chlamydia

The new treatment differs from the traditional antibiotic treatment as it is a type of gene therapy that is delivered via nanotechnology and is showing a 65 per cent success rate in preventing chlamydia infection on a single dose. As antibiotic resistance continues to develop, people may experience Chlamydia infections that cannot be treated through conventional means, which is causing increasing public health challenges, said the researchers. If left untreated or if treatment takes an extended period of time it can lead to infertility and other reproductive issues so finding new ways to treat this common infection is important. The new treatment created in lab targets Chlamydia infection by preventing the majority of bacteria from entering cells in the genital tract and destroying any bacteria that is able to penetrate a cell wall. The team was able to achieve this by using a small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to target a specific gene called PDGFR-beta in the female reproductive tract, which creates a protein that binds to Chlamydia bacteria. If Chlamydia bacteria can bind to cells and enter them the nanomedicine treatment is designed to activate autophagy, a cellular process where infected skin cells are able to form a bubble around that bacteria and destroy it. On its own, siRNA cannot enter skin cells to reduce PDGFR-beta expression and prevent Chlamydia binding. The new gene therapy uses a unique nanoparticle that enables siRNA to enter the cells, reduce Chlamydia's ability to bind and destroy invasive bacteria and prevent the disease from spreading.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2019

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Migraines without Medicine !

                                       Migraine can be treated without medicine

By slightly changing the body's own molecules using a small inhaler, certain migraine patients can either cut down on medication or do without it completely. Patients who suffer from migraine with aura, which is where they experience either sensory or visual disturbances before the painful headaches begin, have been examined in the study. Eleven patients participated in the pilot study, which will now be followed by a large clinical trial. Lead researcher explains that migraines occur as part of a chain reaction during which the veins in the brain contract and the blood cannot therefore supply the brain with sufficient oxygen. Utilization of CO2 and oxygen, which are the body's natural molecules for mobilizing its own defense against migraine attacks. The inhaler expands the blood vessels that supply the brain with oxygen by up to seventy per cent and thereby stops the destructive chain reaction. The pilot study was carried out from 2016-2017 with eleven patients with migraine with aura. One of the results was that the effect of the pain relief increased significantly with each use of the inhaler. Forty-five per cent experienced an effect the first time, and that number rose to 78 per cent the second time. The study shows some very significant physiological effects in the body. Since the pilot project is limited to migraine with aura and only comprised eleven patients, researcher is now planning to conduct a large clinical trial that will also include migraine without aura and chronic migraine.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2019

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Brain Clock !

                                                                                               Brain clock ticks differently in autism

The neural 'time windows' in certain small brain areas contribute to the complex cognitive symptoms of autism, new research suggests. In a brain imaging study of adults, the severity of autistic symptoms was linked to how long these brain areas stored information. The differences in neural timescales may underlie features of autism like hypersensitivity and could be useful as a future diagnostic tool. Sensory areas of the brain that receive input from the eyes, skin and muscles usually have shorter processing periods compared with higher-order areas that integrate information and control memory and decision-making. Atypical information processing in the brain is thought to underlie the repetitive behaviors and socio-communicational difficulties seen across the spectrum of autistic neurodevelopmental disorders (ASD), but this is one of the first indications that small-scale temporal dynamics could have an outsized effect. In the resting state, both groups showed the expected pattern of longer timescales in frontal brain areas linked to executive control, and shorter timescales in sensory and motor areas. One brain area that displayed the opposite pattern was the right caudate, where the neural timescale was longer than normal, particularly in individuals with more severe repetitive, restricted behaviors. These differences in brain activity were also found in separate scans of autistic and neuro typical children. A greater density of neurons can contribute to recurrent, repetitive neural activity patterns, which underlie the longer and shorter timescales, observed in the right caudate and bilateral sensory/visual cortices, respectively. This may explain one prominent feature of autism, the great weight given by the brain to local sensory information and the resulting perceptual hypersensitivity.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2019

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Fight Diabetes !

                                                                                 Human cells can change job to fight diabetes

Traditional cell biology textbooks say that most cells can only differentiate to the same cell type, with the same function. It seems that some of these textbooks need to be rewritten. Latest study shows that the cells in the human body are much more able to differentiate into different cell types than earlier assumed. By influencing the glucagon-producing cells in the pancreas, it is able to produce insulin instead. This may lead to new treatments for diabetes. The researchers witnessed that mice recovered from diabetes after they had human manipulated cells transplanted into their pancreas, and became sick again as soon as these cells were removed. In addition to having the glucagon-producing cells produce insulin, the study also showed that these cells were also more resistant against the immune system, which usually attacks insulin-producing cells in diabetes patients. Today, it is possible to transplant insulin producing cells from dead donors to diabetes patients. The big challenge is that it is able to treat a very small fraction of the patients with this method. Researcher believes that the new method is not limited to only changing the function of the cells in the pancreas & also this cell flexibility will be found in many other types of cells in the human body, and may contribute to new treatments for many different diseases including neurological diseases, heart attacks and cancer.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2019

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product HeplolTM  
  Generic Name L-ornithine L-aspartate
Strength 150 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Hepatic Encholagogues
  Product ProbioTM
Generic Name

Probiotic Combination


4 billions

Dosage form Sachet
Therapeutic Category Antidiarrheal
  Product PerkinorTM
  Generic Name Trihexyphenidyl HCl
  Strength 5 mg/5ml
  Dosage form Syrup
  Therapeutic Category Antiparkinsons

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