Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  18     ISSUE:  2  February 2020 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan




Dear Doctor:

Welcome to online bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Antiviral Treatment !", "DNA Misfolding !", "Aspirin & CVE !", "Ketogenic Diet !", "Neurodevelopmental Disorder !", "Dengue Prediction !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Antiviral Treatment !

                                                          New 'universal' target for antiviral treatment

As the coronavirus outbreak shows, viruses are a constant threat to humanity. Vaccines are regularly developed and deployed against specific viruses, but that process takes a lot of time, doesn't help everyone who needs protection, and still leaves people exposed to new outbreaks and new viruses. Now, researchers have uncovered a novel potential antiviral drug target that could lead to treatments protecting against a host of infectious diseases creating a pan, or universal, treatment. Their work suggests that the protein Argonaute 4 (AGO4) is an "Achilles heel" for viruses. AGO4 is one of a family of AGO proteins. The researchers found that AGO4 plays a key role protecting cells against viral infections. Specifically, this protein is uniquely antiviral in mammalian immune cells. The group studied the anti-viral effects of several Argonaute proteins, and found that only cells that were deficient in AGO4 were "hyper-susceptible" to viral infection. In other words, low levels of AGO4 make mammalian cells more likely to become infected. The researchers suggest that boosting levels of AGO4 could shore up the immune system to protect against multiple viruses. Researcher said that the goal is to understand how our immune system works so we can create treatments that work against a range of viruses, rather than just vaccines against a particular one. Mammals have four Argonaute proteins (1-4), which act by silencing genes and which are remarkably conserved throughout multiple living things, including plants. These are RNAi and microRNA effector proteins and RNAi is the major antiviral defense strategy in plants and invertebrates. Studies of influenza infected mice have shown that AGO4-deficient animals have significantly higher levels of the virus.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2020

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DNA Misfolding !

                                     DNA misfolding in white blood cells increases risk for type 1 diabetes

It's known that genetics, or an inherited genome, is a major determinant of one's risk for autoimmune diseases, like Type 1 diabetes. In human cells, a person's genome about six feet of DNA is compressed into the micrometer space of the nucleus via a three-dimensional folding process. Specialized proteins decode the genetic information, reading instruction from our genome in a sequence-specific manner. Now researchers found, in mice, that changes in DNA sequence can trigger the chromosomes to misfold in a way that puts one at a heightened risk for Type 1 diabetes. The study revealed that differences in DNA sequences dramatically changed how the DNA was folded inside the nucleus, ultimately affecting the regulation the induction or repression of genes linked to the development Type 1 diabetes. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops producing insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. White blood cells called T lymphocytes play a significant role in the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Researcher found that previously defined insulin-diabetes associated regions were also the most hyper folded regions in the T cells of diabetic mice. Researchers then used a high-resolution imaging technique to corroborate the genome misfolding in diabetes-susceptible mice. Importantly, they found the change in folding patterns occurred before the mouse was diabetic. Researchers suggest that the observation could serve as a diagnostic tool in the future if investigators are able to identify such hyper folded regions in the T cells of humans.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2020

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Aspirin & CVE !

                                                         New guidelines on aspirin in primary prevention of first CVE

The most recent guidelines for primary prevention recommend aspirin use for individuals ages 40 to 70 years who are at higher risk of a first cardiovascular event (CVE), but not for those over 70. Yet, people over 70 are at increasingly higher risks of CVE than those under 70. There has been considerable confusion from recently reported results of three large-scale randomized trials of aspirin in high risk primary prevention subjects, one of which showed a significant result, but the other two, based possibly on poor adherence and follow up, did not. Researcher urge that to do the most good for the most patients in primary care, health care providers should make individual clinical judgements about prescribing aspirin on a case-by-case basis. The researchers emphasize that, based on the current totality of evidence, any judgments about prescribing long-term aspirin therapy for apparently healthy individuals should be based on individual clinical judgments between the health care provider and each of his or her patients that weighs the absolute benefit on clotting against the absolute risk of bleeding. The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in developed and developing countries underscores the need for more widespread therapeutic lifestyle changes as well as the adjunctive use of drug therapies of proven net benefit in the primary prevention of heart attacks and strokes. The therapeutic lifestyle changes should include avoidance or cessation of smoking, weight loss and increased daily physical activity, and the drugs should include statins for lipid modification, and multiple classes of drugs likely to be necessary to achieve control of high blood pressure. Individual clinical judgements by health care providers about prescribing aspirin in primary prevention may affect a relatively large proportion of their patients. Researcher said that General guidelines for aspirin in primary prevention do not seem to be justified & as is generally the case, the primary care provider has the most complete information about the benefits and risks for each of his or her patients.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2020

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Ketogenic Diet !

                                            Ketogenic diet helps tame flu virus

A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet like the Keto regimen has its fans, but influenza apparently isn't one of them. Mice fed a ketogenic diet were better able to combat the flu virus than mice fed food high in carbohydrate & the ketogenic diet which for people includes meat, fish, poultry, and non-starchy vegetables activates a subset of T cells in the lungs not previously associated with the immune system's response to influenza, enhancing mucus production from airway cells that can effectively trap the virus, the researchers report. The two wondered if diet could affect immune system response to pathogens such as the flu virus. Researcher showed that mice fed a ketogenic diet and infected with the influenza virus had a higher survival rate than mice on a high-carb normal diet. Specifically, the researchers found that the ketogenic diet triggered the release of gamma delta T cells, immune system cells that produce mucus in the cell linings of the lung -- while the high-carbohydrate diet did not. When mice were bred without the gene that codes for gamma delta T cells, the ketogenic diet provided no protection against the influenza virus. This study shows that the way the body burns fat to produce ketone bodies from the food we eat can fuel the immune system to fight flu infection.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2020

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Neurodevelopmental Disorder !

                                                   Large genetic deletion related to neurodevelopmental disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, likely result from complex interactions that modify the effects of individual genes. In a new study, researchers evaluated the effects of over 300 pairwise knockdowns reducing the expression of two genes simultaneously of the fruit fly versions of genes located in a region of human chromosome 3 that, when deleted, has been implicated in these disorders. These interactions suggest that the disorders have a complex causation involving many genes, rather than resulting from the effects of any individual gene. One gene in particular, NCBP2, appears to be a key modifier, influencing the impact of other genes in the deletion. Of the 21 genes located in the 3q29 deletion, fruit fly counterparts have been identified for 14 genes. Using a technique called RNA interference (RNAi), which reduces the expression of genes in specific tissues in the fly, the researchers first knocked down the expression of 14 fly genes individually and quantified their impact on how cells are organized in the fly eye. They then looked at pairwise knockdowns by reducing the expression of two genes simultaneously. Overall, they tested 314 pairwise knockdowns, including interactions among all 14 of the genes in the 3q29 deletion and between those genes and others with known roles in neurodevelopment. Among all the pairwise knockdowns that the research team tested, one particular gene stood out as having a large effect on the impact of all the other genes in the 3q29 deletion. The NCBP2 gene codes for a protein that is part of the "nuclear cap-binding complex," which binds to the end of RNA molecules and plays a role in RNA regulation, transport, and decay in the cell. The main impact of NCBP2 interactions was the disruption of the cell cycle and increased "apoptosis" cell death. The researchers propose that NCBP2 could modify several cellular processes, not necessarily directly related to apoptosis, but ultimately causing a cascade of events that lead to cell death. Thus, the researchers suggest that apoptosis is an important molecular mechanism for neurodevelopmental disorders related to the 3q29 deletion.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2020

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Dengue Prediction !

                                                                            New tool to predict the global spread of dengue

Researchers developed a new tool to predict the global spread of human infectious diseases, like dengue, and track them to their source. The tool draws on travel data from the International Air Transportation Association and dengue incidence rates from the Global Health Data Exchange to derive new insights about the spreading dynamics of dengue, a mosquito-borne disease. According to the World Health Organization, around half the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue. By understanding the travel behavior of infected individuals, researcher can estimate the number of infections that are imported into different countries each month. The tool also determines the infections' country of origin and is able to uncover the routes along which dengue is most likely spread. In non-endemic countries such as Australia, local outbreaks are triggered by individuals who acquire the disease overseas and transmit the virus to local mosquitoes. Researcher said that in many locations, infected individuals are not diagnosed, and dengue can be under-reported to health authorities, making it challenging to monitor risk and prevent the spread of infection. This tool is one of the first to be able to forecast the absolute number of dengue importations, rather than the relative risk, at a global level. It can also help authorities to identify those locations where new dengue outbreaks may occur, following the arrival of infected passengers. The tool can be applied to other vector-borne diseases of global concern such as malaria, Zika and chikungunya. It expands on previous work, which modelled how dengue infections from overseas might spread in Australia. The research is part of the Disease Networks and Mobility (DiNeMo) project aimed at developing a real-time alert and surveillance system for human infectious diseases.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2020

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Alacot Max Eye DropsTM  
  Generic Name Olopatadine
Strength 0.70%
  Dosage form Eye Drops
Therapeutic Category Anti Allergic
Product RasaletTM
Generic Name



0.5 mg & 1 mg

Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Antiparkinsonís
  Product Lanso-DTM
  Generic Name Dexlansoprazole
  Strength 30 mg & 60 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Antiulcerant

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