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Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  16     ISSUE: 8  August  2018 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Features

EDITORIAL TEAM

OMAR AKRAMUR RAB

MBBS, FCGP, FIAGP,

P G Dip. Business Management

MAHFUZUR RAHMAN

MBBS, MBA

Rubyeat Adnan

MBBS, MPH

EDITORIAL

Dear Doctor,

Welcome to our healthcare bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like -
"
Teen Arthritis !", "Pollution & Kidney Diseases !", "Child Malnutrition !", "Acute leukemia !",  "Mothers Stroke !", "Cocaine Addiction !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,

 

Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

 Teen Arthritis !

Arthritic condition in teens

A new Michigan State University study has found that a malfunctioning gene associated with a common arthritic disease that often starts in teenagers is now directly linked to the loss of vital immune cells that may prevent it. Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1, or ERAP1, is a gene widely known to be associated with the debilitating disease ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Also known as, the autoimmune disorder affects millions worldwide, mostly developing in the hips and spines of those as young as 17 years old and lasting throughout life. But how changes in the gene result in the condition has remained somewhat of a mystery. Lead researcher said that, demonstrated in mice that loss of proper ERAP1 activity correlates with loss of certain immune cells called Tr1s, which are directly responsible for controlling excessive immune responses that can attack healthy tissue and cells In the case of autoimmune disorders, the immune system can no longer tell the difference between good, healthy cells and bad, diseased cells. This often results in an extreme immune reaction where the body starts to overcompensate and attack itself. Because of this response patients with AS experience bony fusions between the joints of the pelvis and spine, which cause chronic pain and disability. They also can suffer from other health issues including problems with the gut and intestine. Researcher observed that Tr1 cells are implicated in digestive issues such as inflammatory bowel disease, and it's possible that the reduction of these cells is responsible for the increased inflammatory responses. With this new insight, both researchers are now testing cells in human blood samples and will move to human trials in the coming years to see if their findings are consistent. Lead researcher said that, there's more work to be done, but a new immunotherapy treatment where more Tr1 cells are infused back into the patient, ultimately correcting the deficiency, could be a possibility. This new treatment, would potentially help regulate the way the immune system responds and might correct any inflammation in the spine and spinal fusions. Amalfitano also indicated that scientists can now focus on this potential relationship between gene and immune cell and look at it as a possible cause of not just AS, but several other autoimmune diseases, too.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2018

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 Pollution & Kidney Diseases !

Polluted air threat to kidneys diseases

There is good evidence that polluted air increases the risk of respiratory problems such as asthma -- as well as organ inflammation, worsening of diabetes and other life-threatening conditions. But new research suggests air pollution can also fuel something else: chronic kidney disease, or CKD, which occurs when a person's kidneys become damaged or cannot filter blood properly. Lead researcher said that, Similar to smoking, air pollution contains harmful toxins that can directly affect the kidneys. Kidneys have a large volume of blood flowing through them, and if anything harms the circulatory system, the kidneys will be the first to sense those effects. Researcher said, People with diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure or heart disease are at increased risk of developing CKD, Which is why high-risk patients who live in heavily populated or polluted areas should recognize the danger and take precautions. Air pollution contains fine particulate matter, or PM2.5, which is a cocktail of microscopic particles. Because these particles are virtually weightless, they can stay in the air longer, causing humans to unavoidably inhale them on a regular basis without knowing it. PM2.5 can lead to serious health effects when inhaled often. By reviewing Medicare claims data and air-quality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. According to figures cited in the new research, chronic kidney disease afflicts more than 27 million Americans. People with CKD have an eightfold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Unfortunately, PM2.5 is almost impossible to avoid. Air pollution encounter from many simple everyday activities, such as cooking and driving. Other contributors are smoking, burning wood, packaged spray products, household appliances and, perhaps the most obvious, industry and vehicle emissions. Air pollution also contains heavy metals such as lead, mercury and cadmium -- all of which are known to negatively affect the kidneys. PM2.5 levels are much lower in the U.S. than in other industrialized countries such as China and India. However, it's still important to take precautions when exposed to air pollution, especially for people who have existing health conditions or who live in densely populated or polluted cities. Researcher said that, In heavily polluted areas, consider wearing masks that cover nose and mouth, limit hours outside and limit long hours commuting to work in high traffic as well. Many people don't see the seriousness of air pollution because it isn't something visible, but that doesn't mean it's any less important for health.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2018

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 Child Malnutrition !

Chronic malnutrition in children: A new gut microbial signature

Chronic malnutrition, usually associated with an inflammation of the small intestine, affects one in every four children under the age of five. It is the leading cause of child mortality in low-income countries and is also responsible for severe stunting. A first study recently demonstrated microbiota disorders in malnourished children, revealing the existence of a surprising microbial signature in the gut, characterized by the widespread presence of bacteria that are normally found in the nose and mouth. Chronic malnutrition affects one in every four children under the age of five worldwide. It claims more than 3 million lives every year and results in impaired cognitive and physical development, especially stunted growth, which can be difficult to overcome. Lead researcher said that, With traditional treatment, in other words providing affected children with micronutrients, a balanced diet and ample food while treating the underlying infections, correct 30% of growth delays, Chronic malnutrition is not only linked to a lack of food; it is also associated with immune problems and chronic gut inflammation, the workings of which are not yet fully understood. The Afribiota project, carried out in collaboration with the Institute Pasteur in Paris, the Institute Pasteur in Madagascar and the Institute Pasteur in Bangui, was set up in 2016 precisely to find out more about the underlying mechanisms of these disorders and to develop more effective treatment. In this first study, the researcher focused on the children's gut flora, one of their aims being to characterize the bacterial populations that colonize the small intestine in malnourished children. The stools and duodenal juice of 400 children living in Antananarivo (Madagascar) and Bangui (Central African Republic), both with and without chronic malnutrition, were analyzed. Bacterial cultures and metagenomic analyses aimed at revealing all the microbial species present were also performed, yielding surprising results. Oropharyngeal bacteria, some of which are known for their inflammatory properties, seem to have literally crossed the barriers that usually keep them in the nasopharynx and the mouth, migrating towards and colonizing the stomach and the intestine. This unusual, large-scale migration was observed in malnourished children from both Madagascar and the Central African Republic, in other words independently of their origins, eating habits and environment. In the long term, this gut microbial signature, together with data from the epidemiological, biological and anthropological research carried out for the Afribiota project, should help identify the causes of chronic malnutrition, facilitate diagnosis and ultimately improve treatment of this global health threat.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2018

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 Acute leukemia !

Drug trials shows 50 percent cure rate in lab mice for acute leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the most aggressive cancers. While other cancers have benefitted from new treatments, there has been no encouraging news for most leukemia patients for the past 40 years, until now. But now researcher have developed a new biological drug with a cure rate of 50% for lab mice with acute leukemia. Leukemia produce a variety (and a high quantity) of proteins that together provide leukemic cells with rapid growth and death protection from chemotherapy. To date, most of the biological cancer drugs used to treat leukemia target only individual leukemic cell proteins. However, during "targeted therapy" treatments, leukemic cells quickly activate their other proteins to block the drug. The result is drug-resistant leukemic cells which quickly regrow and renew the disease. It attacks several leukemic proteins at once, making it difficult for the leukemia cells to activate other proteins that can evade the therapy. Further, this single molecule drug accomplishes the work of three or four separate drugs, reducing cancer patients need to be exposed to several therapies and to deal with their often unbearable side-effects. Additionally promising, is the new drug's ability to eradicate leukemia stem cells. This has long been the big challenge in cancer therapy and one of the main reasons that scientists have been unable to cure acute leukemia. BioTheryX recently bought the rights to this promising drug from HU's technology transfer company Yissum. Together with researcher team, they are now applying for FDA approval for phase I clinical studies.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2018

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 Mothers Stroke !

Breastfeeding may help protect mothers against stroke

Breastfeeding is not only good for babies, there is growing evidence it may also reduce the risk for stroke in post-menopausal women who reported breastfeeding at least one child, according to new research in Journal of the American Heart Association. Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death among women aged 65 and older, and is the third leading cause of death among Hispanic and black women aged 65 and older, according to the study. Some studies have reported that breastfeeding may reduce the rates of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in mothers. Recent findings point to the benefits of breastfeeding on heart disease and other specific cardiovascular risk factors. This is among the first studies to examine breastfeeding and a possible relationship to stroke risk for mothers, as well as how such a relationship might vary by ethnicity. Researchers analyzed data on 80,191 participants in the Women's Health Initiative observational study, a large ongoing national study that has tracked the medical events and health habits of postmenopausal women who were recruited between 1993 and 1998. All women in this analysis had delivered one or more children and 58 percent reported ever having breastfed. Among these women, 51 percent breastfed for one-six months, 22 percent for seven-12 months and 27 percent for 13 or more months. At the time of recruitment, the average age was 63.7 years and the follow-up period was 12.6 years. After adjusting for non-modifiable stroke risk factors (such as age and family history), researchers found stroke risk among women who breastfed their babies was on average: 23 percent lower in all women. Though the study was observational, it couldn't establish a cause-and-effect relationship between breastfeeding and lower stroke risk, meaning that it is possible some other characteristic that distinguishes between women who breastfeed and those who don't is the factor changing the stroke risk. However, because the Women's Health Initiative is large, researchers were able to adjust for many characteristics, and the effects of breastfeeding remained strong. Lead researcher said, Breastfeeding is only one of many factors that could potentially protect against stroke. Others include getting adequate exercise, choosing healthy foods, not smoking and seeking treatment if needed to keep maintain blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar in the normal range. The study was also limited by the relatively small number of strokes that occurred during the follow-up period (just 3.4 percent of the women experienced a stroke during the study period and 1.6 percent reported having had a stroke prior to the study) and by the Women's Health Initiative's exclusion of women who had already had severe strokes at the time of recruitment.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2018

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 Cocaine Addiction !

Exercise can help beat cocaine addiction

Exercise can help prevent relapses into cocaine addiction, according to lead researcher. Cocaine addiction is often characterized by cycles of recovery and relapse, with stress and negative emotions, often caused by withdrawal itself, among the major causes of relapse. Using animal models, researcher found that regular aerobic exercise (one hour on a treadmill, five times a week) decreased stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. Exercise also altered behavioral and physiological responses to stress. Individuals who are addicted to cocaine have altered neural, behavioral and physiological responses to stress. Recent research demonstrated how exercise can alter the brain's mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which is linked to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs such as cocaine. In addition, exercise has been shown to reduce stress hormones and elevate mood, which could assist in alleviating anxiety and negative emotions associated with withdrawal. Studies already have shown that aerobic exercise (also known as "cardio") is an effective strategy against many physical health problems, including heart disease, diabetes and arthritis, along with certain mental health issues, such as stress, anxiety and depression. Lead researcher suggest that regular aerobic exercise could be a useful strategy for relapse prevention, as part of a comprehensive treatment program for recovering cocaine abusers,& also further research is necessary to see if these results also hold true for other addictive drugs.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2018

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Product BimatorTM Eye Drops
Generic Name Bimatoprost +Timolol
  Strength 0.03%+0.5%
  Dosage form Eye Drops
  Therapeutic Category Antiglaucoma
Product XfinTM
Generic Name

Terbinafine 

Strength 250 mg
Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Systemic Antifungal
Product Maxrin D
  Generic Name Tamsulosin HCL+Dutasteride
  Strength 0.4 mg+0.5 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category BPH Products

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