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Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  17     ISSUE:  1  January  2019 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Features

EDITORIAL TEAM

OMAR AKRAMUR RAB

MBBS, FCGP, FIAGP,

P G Dip. Business Management

MAHFUZUR RAHMAN

MBBS, MBA

Rubyeat Adnan

MBBS, MPH

EDITORIAL

Dear Doctor,

Happy New Year 2019 !

Welcome to our online healthcare bulletin e- SQUARE.

In this issue, we focused on some interesting features like -
"Adaptation of Placenta !
", "Blocking Hormone !", "Clues of Autism !", "Frailty and Dementia !",  "Newer contraceptive pills !", "Parental PTSD !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send your feedback !  We always value your comments !

On behalf of the management of SQUARE, we wish you all a very happy, healthy and prosperous life.

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,

 

Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

 Adaptation of Placenta !

Placentas adapt when mothers have poor diets

The placenta develops during pregnancy and connects the developing baby to the mother. It serves as the lungs, kidneys, gut and liver for growing babies and carries oxygen and nutrients to the fetus whilst secreting hormones and discarding waste. Researchers have discovered the placenta regulates how much oxygen and nutrients it transports to babies during challenging pregnancies in a study using mice to model conditions in the womb. Researchers said that the study analyzed how mitochondria in the placenta may alter their function to support both the needs of the placenta and the rapidly growing fetus during a healthy pregnancy, and when the mother is challenged by a less desirable environment. It is found that in the placenta, mitochondria have a remarkable ability to adapt and compensate for environmental impacts such as when women are living in low oxygen areas at high altitude and not eating enough of a healthy diet during pregnancy. Researcher used the mouse as a model, as its placenta develops and functions in a similar way to humans, looking at how the placenta and their mitochondria reacted and what impact this had on the growth of the fetus. The aim of the study was to understand what is required for a healthy placenta to perform its vital functions during pregnancy. The next step would be to target mitochondria in the placenta to alter their function and improve pregnancy success in women where know the outcome might be poor.

SOURCE: Science Daily, January 2019

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 Blocking Hormone !

                                                     Blocking hormone uptake burns more fat 

Fat tissue can be white, brown, or beige, differing not only in color but also in metabolism. White fat is principally a storage tissue, with a low rate of metabolism; brown fat tissue, on the other hand, is rich in mitochondria, and burns up stored fat, releasing heat to warm the body, a process called thermogenesis. After prolonged cold exposure, brown-like fat cells develop within white fat, making it beige, and beige fat cells also burn fat to keep the body warm. A key stimulus for thermogenesis is the hormone norepinephrine, which exerts its effects at the cell surface, and is then taken up into the cell and degraded to prevent overstimulation. A mechanism for the uptake of norepinephrine from fat cells has previously been described, but its rate of uptake is relatively low, suggesting there may be another pathway. In the new study, the authors found that beige fat cells in mice have high levels of a protein called organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3), which can import norepinephrine into the cells for degradation. The authors showed that reducing the level of Oct3, and thus slowing norepinephrine degradation, led to a higher rate of fat metabolism in beige fat and a higher body temperature. When exposed to prolonged cold, mice deficient in Oct3 increased beige fat content faster than their littermate controls, accompanied by increased activity of thermogenic and mitochondrial biogenic genes. Gratifyingly, when looked at human genetic association databases, the authors found that possessing versions of the OCT3 gene that make OCT3 protein with a reduced transport function was associated with a higher metabolic rate. Together, these results indicate that OCT3 plays an important role in regulating the rate of beige fat production and thermogenesis in both mice and humans.

SOURCE: Science Daily, January 2019

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 Clues of Autism !

                                            Clues into early development of autism spectrum disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a relatively common developmental disorder of communication and behavior. Researchers compared stem cells created from individuals with ASD against stem cells created from those without ASD to uncover, for the first time, measurable differences in the patterns and speed of development in the ASD-derived cells. For the study, the researchers took skin cells from eight people with ASD and five people without ASD and turned them into pluripotent stem cells -- cells that have the ability to develop into any cell type. Researcher then coaxed the stem cells to develop along the path of becoming neurons by exposing them to certain chemical factors. By using molecular "snapshots" from different developmental stages in the stem cells, the team was able to track genetic programs that switched on in a certain order as the stem cells developed into neurons. This revealed key differences in the cells derived from people with ASD. For instance, one team observed that the genetic program associated with the neural stem-cell stage turned on earlier in the ASD cells than it did in the cells from those without ASD. This genetic program includes many genes that have been associated with higher chances of ASD. In addition, the neurons that eventually developed from the people with ASD grew faster and had more complex branches than those from the control group. The researchers say the experiments in this study will lead to more dynamic approaches for studying the mechanisms that are involved in ASD predisposition and progression & next plan to focus on the creation of brain organoids, three-dimensional models of brain development in a dish that enable scientists to study the interactions between different types of brain cells.

SOURCE: Science Daily, January 2019

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Frailty and Dementia !

                                                        Frailty could make people more susceptible to dementia

New research published in suggests that frailty makes older adults more susceptible to Alzheimer's dementia, and moderates the effects of dementia-related brain changes on dementia symptoms. The findings suggest that frailty should be considered in clinical care and management of Alzheimer's dementia. The study found that older adults (59 years and older) with higher levels of frailty were more likely to have both Alzheimer's disease-related brain changes and symptoms of dementia, whilst others with substantial brain changes, but who were not frail, showed fewer clinical symptoms. By reducing an individual's physiological reserve, frailty could trigger the clinical expression of dementia when it might remain asymptomatic in someone who is not frail. This indicates that a 'frail brain' might be more susceptible to neurological problems like dementia as it is less able to cope with the pathological burden. The findings support the idea that late-life dementia (and particularly Alzheimer's disease) is a complex phenomenon rather than a single disease entity marked by genetic risk or single protein abnormalities in the brain. The researchers also found a significant association between frailty and Alzheimer's disease-related brain changes after excluding activities of daily living from the frailty index and adjusting for other risk factors such as stroke, heart failure, high blood pressure, and diabetes. In light of current knowledge on the cognitive frailty phenotype, secondary preventive strategies for cognitive impairment and physical frailty can be suggested.

SOURCE: Science Daily, January 2019

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Newer contraceptive pills !

                     Newer contraceptive pills linked to reduced ovarian cancer risk in young women

New types of combined oral contraceptives (containing both lower doses of oestrogens and newer progestogens) are associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, in young women. The results show that this positive effect strengthened with longer periods of use and persisted for several years after stopping, providing important reassurance for women, say the researchers. At least 100 million women worldwide are using hormonal contraception every day. Previous research has shown a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in women who take combined oral contraceptives, but most of the evidence relates to the use of older products, containing higher levels of oestrogen and older progestogens. Women who use newer oral contraceptives and other hormonal contraceptive methods also want to know whether are likely to experience the same benefit. After taking account of several factors, including age and parity, the researchers found that the number of cases of ovarian cancer were highest in women who had never used hormonal contraception (7.5 per 100,000 person years), whereas among women who had ever used hormonal contraception, the number of cases of ovarian cancer were 3.2 per 100,000 person years. The reduced risk for combined products was seen with nearly all types of ovarian cancer, and there was little evidence of important differences between products containing different types of progestogens. This is an observational study, so no firms conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, but scientist do support the findings of studies of older products.

SOURCE: Science Daily, January 2019

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Parental PTSD !

Parental PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) affects health behavior

A new study on intergenerational transmission of trauma has found evidence that Holocaust survivors suffering from PTSD and their adult offspring exhibit more unhealthy behavior patterns and age less successfully in comparison to survivors with no signs of PTSD or parents who did not experience the Holocaust and their offspring. Now that are mostly middle aged or older adults, offspring of Holocaust survivors may be assessed to determine whether ancestral trauma lingers on to affect their aging process. The results can provide important data not just about Holocaust survivors and their offspring, but also in general about aging individuals who exposed to massive trauma. Researcher found that Holocaust survivors with signs of PTSD and their offspring reported more unhealthy behavior, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity, compared to those with no signs of PTSD or no exposure to the Holocaust and their offspring. Additionally, Holocaust survivors with signs of PTSD and their offspring reported more medical conditions and disability, which suggests a less successful aging process. There is much evidence that traumatic exposure can mold the way survivors' age. Holocaust survivors who suffer from PTSD tend to engage in unhealthy behavior and transmit this behavior to their offspring, which influences their health and functioning in later years. What causes the intergenerational transmission of trauma is still unclear, there is initial evidence that biological mechanisms are involved in the process said by lead researcher. The majority of offspring of Holocaust survivors developed into fully functioning and healthy people, but specific groups at higher risk of developing mental and physical morbidity must be pinpointed in order to offer them suitable interventions that will lessen their suffering. The current findings suggest that unhealthy behaviors should be assessed among offspring of Holocaust survivors, especially among those whose parents suffer from PTSD, and this carries important clinical implications.

SOURCE: Science Daily, January 2019

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Deflacort  
  Generic Name Deflazacort
  Strength 30 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Oral Corticosteroid
  Product Hemosol ATM
Generic Name

Acidic Dialysis Solution

Strength NaCl-161.4 gm, KCl-5.49 gm, CaCl-9.75 gm, MgCl2-3.74, CH3COOH-8.85 gm
Dosage form Dialysis Solution
Therapeutic Category Hemodialysis Solution
  Product Hemosol BTM
Generic Name Basic Dialysis Solution
  Strength NaCl-30.5 gm, NaHCO3-66.0 gm
Dosage form Dialysis Solution
  Therapeutic Category Hemodialysis Solution

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