Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  16     ISSUE:  9    September  2018 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan




Dear Doctor:

Welcome to  'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Chronic Colitis & Insulin !", "Lung Cancers !", "Birth Control Pills Risk !", "New Vaccine !", "'Promising Treatment !", "Hormone Therapy Risk !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send us your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 Chronic Colitis & Insulin !

                                                         Insulin shows great potential against chronic colitis

Millions of people take insulin every day to treat their diabetes. But diabetes is not the only disease on which insulin has an effect, it appears. Chronic bowel inflammation can be treated effectively by injecting insulin into the rectum, it appears from a new study, where researchers have tested the treatment on mice. Lead researcher said that new treatment with insulin on mice shows great potential against chronic bowel inflammation in humans like Colitis Ulcerosa, which causes a lot of people great discomfort. Existing treatments attack the bowel's immune system, dampening it; instead the method strengthens the bowel cells' own defence. It appears to work equally well, and it can probably be used in combination with existing treatments. It has examined the effect of the treatment in a series of tests on mice with chronic colitis of the type Colitis Ulcerosa, among others, from which 20,000 Danes suffer. The cause of these bowel disorders is unknown, but they cause patients great discomfort and can involve bloody diarrhea, anemia, stomach ache and weight loss. The researchers have studied the effect of the insulin treatment in various ways. First, they have shown that the amount of inflammation, expressed as the level of the marker Cox2, drops by 50 per cent compared to the saltwater control treatment. That is more or less the same effect shown in tests on mice prior to the launch of the existing treatment in the market. Second, the researchers have measured the body weight of the mice, that people suffering from colitis typically lose a lot of weight because they do not eat much. As this marker is relatively crude, some studies of the existing treatment have shown no effect at all. However, using the new insulin treatment the mice lose 15-20 per cent less weight than the control group, and following treatment they gain weight 50 per cent faster, which is an important sign of health. The insulin works because it activates a gene inside the bowel cells, which, according to other studies, has an antioxidant effect and thus may be able to protect the bowel cells from inflammation. This makes the new treatment different from existing medication, which instead of strengthening the bowel's defence weakens the immune system's attack on the bowel. And therefore the researchers hope the new treatment can be combined with the existing.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2018

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 Lung Cancers !

    Immune cell shapes: Fighting lung cancers

The scientists were able to swiftly analyze hundreds of tissue images to not only count cancer-associated immune cells but identify patterns in how they were arranged. That breakthrough view can now help determine which patients need chemotherapy or immunotherapy based on computational analysis of routine tissue-slide images obtained either by surgery or biopsy. While this published research focused on early-stage lung cancer tissue, further analysis also predicted the success of immunotherapy in late-stage lung cancer. Oncologists and pathologists routinely take a tissue sample of cancer cells and then capture an image of that tissue. But the advent of deep-learning and machine-learning algorithms has allowed researchers to find patterns among the cells that would otherwise be nearly impossible for the human eye to detect. Most often, that means analyzing cancer cells themselves, or with limited success, counting the white blood cells, called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which the body sends out to battle the cancer. Lead researcher said, One of the big problems is that cancer generally masks the immune response, which is why, to the body, cancer doesn't present as a foreign invader. For that reason, pathologists have been trying for the last 10 to 15 years to better understand how that immune response might correlate to how the cancer would spread or how the patient would respond to certain therapies or whether the patient even needs the invasive and painful chemotherapy routinely give to virtually all cancer victims. Since 2016, researcher have received over $9.5 million from the National Cancer Institute to develop computational tools for analysis of digital pathology images of breast, lung and head and neck cancers to identify which patients with these diseases could be spared aggressive radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2018

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 Birth Control Pills Risk !

                                                 Birth control pills increase risk of ischemic stroke

Birth control pills do not increase the risk of hemorrhagic strokes. Ischemic strokes, which account for about 85 percent of all strokes, are caused by blood clots. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain why oral contraceptives increase stroke risk, including by raising blood pressure and by making blood hypercoagulable (more likely to clot). When prescribing hormonal contraceptives, physicians should consider the type and dose of estrogen or progestin and route of administration (such as pill or patch). Lead researcher said that the ideal drug is one with the lowest estrogen and progestin doses that will be effective in preventing pregnancy while minimizing adverse effects. For healthy young women without any stroke risk factors, the stroke risk associated with oral contraceptives is very small. These risk factors include high blood pressure, cigarette smoking and migraine headaches, especially migraines with sensory disturbances called aura (such as flashes of light and tingling in the hands or face). However, women may not always be adequately screened. One previous study found that, among women with one or more stroke risk factors, only 15 percent recalled being advised not to start oral contraceptives and only 36 percent remembered being told to stop. Fifteen percent of women were still taking oral contraceptives despite being told to discontinue. These findings highlight the need to improve physician counseling and patient compliance.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2018

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 New Vaccine !

                                            Researchers seek vaccine for traveler's diarrhea

Every year, millions of people have vacations and business trips ruined when they succumb to traveler's diarrhea during their journeys. A major cause of traveler's diarrhea is bacteria called Enterotoxigenic E. coli, or ETEC. Now researcher has discovered how ETEC works to cause disease. They are using this information in an effort to develop a preventive vaccine for travelers. The researchers taken to study samples directly from citizens who volunteered to become infected with ETEC. Ingesting contaminated food or water can lead to ETEC infection, which can cause diarrhea for up to a week. Considering the fact that up to 200 million people become infected annually, an estimated 1 billion days of human productivity are lost every year due to ETEC infections. Visiting the doctor to get vaccinated before a trip can prevent travelers from catching a disease. The group examined how ETEC behaved inside humans during infection compared to how it behaved in the laboratory. They were surprised to find that ETEC produced more toxins when grown in the laboratory than it did in human infection samples. Bewildered, the researchers sought to figure out why. They discovered that ETEC could sense oxygen in the atmosphere, and that controlled the amount of toxins produced by ETEC. This explained their surprising data: There is more oxygen in the atmosphere than there is in the digestive tract, which resulted in the differing levels of toxin expression. This breakthrough gives researchers hope that they have identified the "cue" that ETEC uses to determine when to make toxins that cause disease. How ETEC causes disease via toxins has been studied exhaustively for decades. Previous groups have identified numerous factors that contribute to toxin production in ETEC, but this is the first-time oxygen has been identified as a major player in ETEC virulence. Lead researcher said that ETEC can sense the oxygen given off by our own cells as a cue to produce toxins & hopes to use this oxygen-sensitive ETEC response against the bacteria to prevent infections.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2018

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 Promising Treatment !
Promising novel treatment against Alzheimer’s disease

Researcher reveals that a novel drug reverses memory deficits and stops Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in an animal model. Importantly, this drug has already proven to be non-toxic for humans in a clinical setting and could, therefore, be brought quickly to trials in humans against AD. Researcher identify early neurodegenerative events responsible for age-related memory loss & discovered that the Caspase-6 enzyme is highly activated in Alzheimer disease brain lesions and associated with loss of memory. Researcher also pursued the hypothesis that stopping Caspase-6 might provide relief from memory loss and stop progressive dementia. This was a significant revelation because Caspase-1 inhibitors had been developed for treating inflammatory diseases. So researcher decided to test the effects of a particular Caspase-1 inhibitor, called VX-765, against memory loss and brain pathologies in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease. They showed that VX-765 has an unprecedented beneficial effect in Alzheimer mice. The drug rapidly reverses memory loss, eliminates inflammation, and stops Alzheimer's prototypical amyloid peptide accumulation in the mice brains. In addition to being safe for humans at relatively high doses for extended periods of time, it is capable of reaching the brain, a significant challenge in the development of drugs against disorders of the brain. There is a considerable bridge to cross between the mouse brain and that of a human. Caspase-1/Caspase-6 neurodegenerative pathway in human neurons and in human Alzheimer brains, there is a chance that this drug will work just as well in humans as it did in mice. Nevertheless, a clinical trial is needed to determine whether the drug will be beneficial against Alzheimer disease in humans.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2018

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 Hormone Therapy Risk !

                                                             Hormone therapy can make prostate cancer worse

Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death in men, behind lung cancer, killing nearly 30,000 in the U.S. each year, according to the American Cancer Society. In its early stages, the most common type, adenocarcinoma, is curable and generally responds well to therapies, including those that target androgen -- a male sex hormone that stimulates tumor growth. However, in certain patients, the cancer becomes resistant to androgen-targeted therapy, and the cancer recurs or spreads. One possible reason for that resistance, the study indicated, appears to be that the therapy causes some adenocarcinoma cells to become neuroendocrine cancer type cells, a rare type that normally appears in fewer than 1 percent of prostate cancer patients. Lead researcher said that this transformation is a problem because neuroendocrine prostate cancer is especially aggressive, metastasizes more readily and is more resistant to both androgen-targeted therapy and chemotherapy. One-fourth of the patients who receive androgen-targeted therapy may relapse with tumors that show features of neuroendocrine prostate cancer and develop treatment-resistant disease, according to published research. To learn more about this process, the investigators examined how cancer cells interact with the supporting cells near the tumor, referred to as the tumor microenvironment, in laboratory mice. Researcher found these interactions raised the level of the amino acid glutamine, turning the supporting cells into "factories" that supplied fuel for the cancer cells & also examined how androgen-targeted therapy affected the cancer microenvironment. As the final step in validating the findings in mice, investigators compared levels of glutamine in the plasma of small groups of patients one with treatment-responsive prostate cancer and the other with treatment-resistant prostate cancer. They found that levels of glutamine were higher in the second group. The study raises the possibility that a simple blood test measuring glutamine might be able to pinpoint when androgen-targeted therapy is failing in a prostate cancer patient and even predict when therapy resistance will occur.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2018

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Tusca PlusTM
  Generic Name Diphenhydramine HCl+ Guaifenesin+ Levomenthol
Strength (14 mg + 100 mg + 1.1 mg)/5 ml
  Dosage form Syrup
  Therapeutic Category Expectorants
  Product GelaseedTM
Generic Name Flaxseed Oil
Strength 1000 mg
Dosage form Softgel Capsule
Therapeutic Category Antiatheroma
  Product Eprim PlusTM
  Generic Name Evening Primrose Oil
  Strength 1000 mg
  Dosage form Softgel Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Gynecological

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