Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  18     ISSUE:  9    September  2020 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan




Dear Doctor:

Hope you are well !

Welcome to our online publication  'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like-

"Breathing New Hope !", "Parkinson's Disease !", "Brain Inflammation !", "Mosquito-borne Viruses !", "Weight Loss Charm !", "Fatter Legs !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send us your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Breathing New Hope !

                                                Vitamin D deficiency may raise risk of getting COVID-19

Researchers found an association between vitamin D deficiency and the likelihood of becoming infected with the coronavirus. The lead researcher said that Vitamin D is important to the function of the immune system and vitamin D supplements have previously been shown to lower the risk of viral respiratory tract infections and this may be true for the COVID-19 infection. The research team looked at 489 Medicine patients whose vitamin D level was measured within a year before being tested for COVID-19. Patients who had vitamin D deficiency (< 20ng/ml) that was not treated were almost twice as likely to test positive for the COVID-19 coronavirus compared to patients who had sufficient levels of the vitamin. Half of Americans are deficient in Vitamin D, with much higher rates seen in African Americans, Hispanics and individuals living in areas like Chicago where it is difficult to get enough sun exposure in winter. Understanding whether treating Vitamin D deficiency changes COVID-19 risk could be of great importance locally, nationally and globally, Vitamin D is inexpensive, generally very safe to take, and can be widely scaled. Researcher also emphasize the importance of experimental studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk, and potentially severity of COVID-19. They also highlight the need for studies of what strategies for vitamin D supplementation may be most appropriate in specific populations.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2020

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Parkinson's Disease !

    Estrogen improves Parkinson's disease symptoms

According to new research Brain-selective estrogen treatment improves the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in male mice. These findings may help explain the sex differences in Parkinson's disease and could lead to estrogen-based treatments. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of neurons involved in movement, which may be partially caused by gene mutations for the protein α-synuclein. Scientists have long known that clumps of a damaged protein called alpha-synuclein build up in the dopamine-producing brain cells of patients with Parkinson's disease. These shorter form of the protein clusters in neurons, resulting in their death, while the longer form resists clumping, causing motor symptoms and cognitive decline. Estrogen is thought to protect movement neurons from Parkinson's disease, but how is unknown. Since the patients more susceptible to Parkinson's disease, men and post-menopausal women have low estrogen levels, estrogen treatment might be an effective way to delay and reduce symptoms. Researchers treated mouse models of Parkinson's disease with brain-selective estrogen and compared the motor performance of males and females before and after treatment. The female mice showed less severe symptoms at a later age, but estrogen still improved their symptoms. In male mice, the estrogen treatment reduced α-synuclein breakdown and buildup and helped with severe symptoms, suggesting that estrogen could be a viable treatment option for Parkinson's patients with low estrogen levels.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2020

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Brain Inflammation !

                                                 Immune cells in brain infection

Researchers have identified the specific type of immune cell that induces brain inflammation in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. Crucially, they have also determined the signaling protein that calls this immune cell into the brain from the bloodstream. Their findings could aid the development of targeted treatments for the brain infection, which is the most common cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. HSV encephalitis takes hold quickly and, despite rapid anti-viral drug treatment, many patients die. Most survivors are left with brain injury due to the inflammation and damage caused by the virus and immune cells gaining access to the brain, breaking down the blood-brain barrier. Determining the roles of specific immune cells and the factors that allow them to cross the protective blood-brain barrier is critical to develop targeted immune-therapies, using a mouse model, the researchers showed that neutrophils (a type of immune cell) made the blood-brain barrier more permeable and contributed to the brain damage associated with HSV encephalitis. They also found that these neutrophils were not needed to control the virus. Meanwhile, monocyte immune cells were found to play a protective role and were needed to control the virus and prevent brain damage. The lead Researcher also identified the exact signaling protein, called CXCL1, that drove the migration of these damaging neutrophils into the brain during HSV infection. By blocking this CXCL1 protein, neutrophils were prevented from crossing the blood-brain barrier and causing inflammation which resulted in less severe disease. The findings make the CXCL1 protein an attractive target for new therapies that can stop the influx of damaging white blood cells without limiting the roles of protective ones. The lead Researcher said that there is currently no licensed treatment for the severe brain swelling which occurs despite antiviral therapy in HSV encephalitis. Sometimes steroids are given, but as these suppress the immune system in a very broad way, there is a risk of uncontrolled viral infection.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2020

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Mosquito-borne Viruses !

                                            Mosquito-borne viruses linked to stroke

A new research has found where a deadly combination of two mosquito-borne viruses may be a trigger for stroke. Researchers have been investigating the link between neurological disease and infection with the viruses Zika and chikungunya. These viruses, which mostly circulate in the tropics, cause large outbreaks of rash and fever. Zika is widely known to cause brain damage in babies following infection in pregnancy, but the new research shows it can also cause nervous system disease in adults. The new research that held on 2015 Zika and 2016 chikungunya epidemics shows that each virus can cause a range of neurological problems. Zika was especially likely to cause Guillain-Barre syndrome. Chikungunya was more likely to cause inflammation and swelling in the brain and spinal cord. However, stroke, which could be caused by either virus alone, was more likely to occur in patients infected with the two viruses together. The median age of patients was 48, and just over half the patients were female. Only around 10% patients had fully recovered at discharge, with many having ongoing issues like weakness, seizures, and problems in brain function. Of the stroke patients, who were aged 67 on average, around two thirds had infection with more than one virus. Many of the people who had a stroke had other stroke risk factors, such as high blood pressure, indicating that stroke following Zika and chikungunya viral infection may most often be seen in those who are already high risk. Researcher said that this study highlights the potential effects of viral infection on the brain, with complications like stroke. This is relevant to Zika and chikungunya, but also to our understanding of other viruses, such as COVID-19, which is increasingly being linked to neurological complications.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2020

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Weight Loss Charm !
Compounds in coffee may have anti-obesity properties

According to a new study Women who drink two or three cups of coffee a day have been found to have lower total body and abdominal fat than those who drink less. Researchers examined that the relationship between cups of coffee drunk per day and both total body fat percentage and abdominal or 'trunk' fat. They found that women aged 20-44 who drank two or three cups of coffee per day had the lowest levels of adiposity, 3.4% lower than people who did not consume coffee. Among women aged between 45-69, those who drank four or more cups had an adiposity percentage 4.1% lower. Overall, the average total body fat percentage was 2.8% lower among women of all ages who drank two or three cups of coffee per day. The findings were consistent whether the coffee consumed was caffeinated or decaffeinated, and among smokers/non-smokers and those suffering from chronic diseases when compared to those in good health. In men, the relationship was less significant, although men aged 20-44 who drank two or three cups per day had 1.3% less total fat and 1.8% less trunk fat than those who did not consume coffee. The lead researcher suggests that there may be bioactive compounds in coffee other than caffeine that regulate weight and which could potentially be used as anti-obesity compounds. It could be that coffee, or its effective ingredients, could be integrated into a healthy diet strategy to reduce the burden of chronic conditions related to the obesity epidemic. It is important to interpret the findings of this study in light of its limitations. The study was at a specific point in time so trends cannot be established. However, we don't believe that someone's weight is likely to influence their coffee consumption.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2020

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Fatter Legs !

                              Fatter legs linked to reduced risk of high blood pressure

According to new research Adults with fatter legs, meaning they have a higher percentage of total body fat tissue in their legs, were less likely than those with a lower percentage to have high blood pressure. We noted in this study is a continued discussion of it's not just how much fat you have, but where the fat is located. If you have fat around your legs, it is more than likely not a bad thing and may even be protecting you from hypertension, according to our findings. The researcher examined the rate of three types of high blood pressure in relation to the percentage of fat tissue in the legs of nearly 6,000 adults. Average age of the participants was 37, nearly half were female and 24% had high blood pressure, defined as blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg. Special X-ray scans measured fat tissue in the legs, and these measures were compared to overall body fat tissue. Investigators classified participants as having either a high or low percentage of leg fat, with high fat defined as 34% or more for males, and 39% or more for females. Participants with higher percentages of leg fat were less likely than those with lower levels of fat to have all types of high blood pressure. The analysis found that compared to those with lower percentages of leg fat, participants with higher percentages of leg fat were 61% less likely to have the type of high blood pressure where both numbers are elevated. In addition, risk for participants with higher leg fat was 53% lower for diastolic high blood pressure and 39% lower for systolic high blood pressure. If these results are confirmed by larger, more robust studies, and in studies using easily accessible measurement methods like thigh circumference, there is the potential to affect patient care. Several limitations could have affected the study's results. First, the study could not determine cause and effect, since information on blood pressure and percentage of fat tissue in the legs were measured at the same time. Second, a larger group of participants is needed to yield more information about the effects on high blood pressure of varying degrees of fat tissue in the legs. Finally, all study participants were under the age of 60, so the results may not apply to older adults, who are generally at greater risk for high blood pressure.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2020

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product ZolivoxTM
  Generic Name Linezolid
Strength 400 mg & 600 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Antibacterials
  Product BilistaTM
Generic Name Bilastine INN
Strength 20 mg
Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Antihistamine
  Product GigabacTM
  Generic Name Colistamethate Sodium
  Strength 1.5M IU & 4.5M IU
  Dosage form Injection
  Therapeutic Category Polymyxin Antibiotic

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