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Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  19     ISSUE:  2  February 2021 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Features

EDITORIAL TEAM

OMAR AKRAMUR RAB

MBBS, FCGP, FIAGP,

P G Dip. Business Management

MAHFUZUR RAHMAN

MBBS, MBA

Rubyeat Adnan

MBBS, MPH , CCD

 

EDITORIAL

Dear Doctor:

Welcome to online bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Neuroblastoma !", "Gamechanger Drug !", "Cold Sores !", "Periodontitis & CVE !", "Intranasal Vaccine !", "Air Pollution & Kids !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,

 

Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 
Neuroblastoma !

                                               Gene implicated in neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer, identified

Researchers has identified that a chromosome instability gene, USP24, is frequently missing in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma, an aggressive form of childhood cancer. The finding provides important insight into the development of this disease. To identify new therapeutic approaches, researcher examined the role of a set of enzymes known as deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB) in this disease. They chose this family of enzymes because they could be targeted using drug therapy & identify two genes -- USP24 and USP44 -- with the biggest potential to affect the outcomes of young patients with neuroblastoma. These genes were the ones most closely implicated as being important for accurate cell division. Researcher & his team found that USP44 plays an important role in cell division and was associated with poor outcomes in lung cancer. Therefore, the team shifted its attention to USP24 to understand how it might contribute to neuroblastoma & they observed low levels of USP24 in children with neuroblastoma whose tumors were highly aggressive, leading to early progression or recurrence of the disease. Low levels of USP24 occur commonly with other markers of aggressive disease, including amplification of the MYCN cancer gene and a loss of a large segment of chromosome 1. The team also found that USP24 is not simply a marker for aggressive disease. Using genetically engineered mice that lack the USP24 gene & found that USP24 plays an important role in protecting cells against errors in chromosome distribution that take place during cell division. When researcher compared cells with normal or deleted USP24, and examined the levels of proteins in dividing cells, & found that mice lacking even one of the two copies of USP24 were more prone to developing tumors. This helped lead us to our conclusion that USP24 may play a role in ensuring accurate cell division, and that a loss of USP24 in mice leads to tumor formation and may also contribute to the development of aggressive neuroblastoma tumors in children.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2021

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Gamechanger Drug !

                                   'Gamechanger' drug for treating obesity cuts body weight by 20 percent

One third (35%) of people who took a new drug for treating obesity lost more than one-fifth (greater than or equal to 20%) of their total body weight, according to a major global study involving UCL researchers. The findings from the large-scale international trial, are being hailed as a "gamechanger" for improving the health of people with obesity and could play a major part in helping the UK to reduce the impact of diseases, such as COVID-19. The drug, semaglutide, works by hijacking the body's own appetite regulating system in the brain leading to reduced hunger and calorie intake. The findings of this study represent a major breakthrough for improving the health of people with obesity. Three quarters (75%) of people who received semaglutide 2.4mg lost more than 10% of their body weight and more than one-third lost more than 20%. No other drug has come close to producing this level of weight loss. For the first time, people can achieve through drugs what was only possible through weight-loss surgery. Semaglutide is clinically approved to be used for patients with type 2 diabetes, though is typically prescribed in much lower doses of 1mg. The drug possesses a compound structurally similar to (and mimics) the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone, which is released into the blood from the gut after meals. The impact of obesity on health has been brought into sharp focus by COVID-19 where obesity markedly increases the risk of dying from the virus, as well as increasing the risk of many life-limiting serious diseases including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, liver disease and certain types of cancers. Those who had taken semaglutide also saw reductions in risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, such as waist circumference, blood fats, blood sugar and blood pressure and reported improvements in their overall quality of life.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2021

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Cold Sores !

                                                   Cold sores: Discovery reveals how stress, illness trigger flareups

Researchers shed light on what causes herpes simplex virus to flare up, explaining how stress, illness and even sunburn can trigger unwanted outbreaks. The discovery could lead to new ways to prevent cold sores and herpes-related eye disease from reoccurring, the researchers report. Herpes simplex recurrence has long been associated with stress, fever and sunburn. Instead, it lurks inside neurons, waiting for the right moment to strike again, a process known as reactivation. Cold sores, also known as fever blisters, are one of the most common symptoms of HSV reactivation. Recurrent reactivation in the eye leads to herpes keratitis, which, if left untreated, can result in blindness. HSV infection has also been linked to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Recurrences of HSV are typically associated with stress, illness or sunburn, but doctors have been uncertain exactly what causes the virus to reactivate. The researchers determined that the virus highjacks an important immune response within the body. In response to prolonged periods of inflammation or stress, the immune system releases a particular cytokine, Interleukin 1 beta. This cytokine is also present in epithelial cells in the skin and eye and is released when these cells are damaged by ultraviolet light. Interleukin 1 beta then increases the excitability in the affected neurons, setting the stage for HSV to flare up, the UVA researchers discovered. The scientists say that more research will need to be done to fully understand the potential factors which play into herpes simplex disease. It may vary depending on the virus strain or the type of neuron infected, even. And it is still unknown if the virus alters how neurons respond to cytokines such as Interleukin 1 beta. But the new insights help doctors better understand what is happening in neurons and the immune system, and that could lead to ways to prevent unwanted outbreaks, the researchers hope.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2021

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Periodontitis & CVE !

                                       Periodontal disease increases risk of major cardiovascular events(CVE)

People with periodontitis are at higher risk of experiencing major cardiovascular events, according to new research. Researcher showed that inflammation associated with active gum disease was predictive of arterial inflammation, which can cause heart attacks, strokes, and other dangerous manifestations of cardiovascular disease. For the study, researchers performed positron emission tomography and computer tomography (PET and CT) scans on 304 individuals to view and quantify inflammation in the arteries and gums of each patient. In follow-up studies approximately four years later, 13 of those individuals developed major adverse cardiovascular events. Presence of periodontal inflammation was shown to be predictive of cardiovascular events, even after researchers controlled for all other risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes. Importantly, researchers found that bone loss from prior periodontal disease was not associated with cardiovascular events. Patients that did not have actively inflamed gums had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease even if those individuals had a prior history of periodontal disease as evidenced by periodontal bone loss in their CT scans. Researchers hypothesize that local periodontal inflammation activates and mobilizes cells signaling through bone marrow, which triggers the inflammation of arteries, leading to adverse cardiac events.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2021

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Intranasal Vaccine !

                                                           Intranasal influenza vaccine spurs strong immune response

An experimental single-dose, intranasal influenza vaccine was safe and produced a durable immune response. The investigational vaccine, called Ad4-H5-VTN, is a recombinant, replicating adenovirus vaccine designed to spur antibodies to hemagglutinin, a protein found on the surface of influenza viruses that attaches to human cells. It was administered intranasally (28 study participants), as an oral capsule (10 participants) and via a tonsillar swab (25 participants) to healthy men and non-pregnant women ages 18 to 49 years.The participants who received the vaccine intranasally or via tonsillar swab showed significantly higher H5-specific neutralizing antibody levels compared to the group receiving the vaccine capsule orally. The participants who received the intranasal vaccine shed viral DNA for two-to-four weeks, but virus could be cultured for a median of only one day. Participants had evidence of H5-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Additionally, volunteers who received the intranasal vaccine had high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies at 26 weeks after vaccination, and this level was unchanged at three to five years after a single intranasal dose of the vaccine. The duration of viral shedding correlated with a high magnitude of neutralizing antibody response at week 26. In addition, the intranasal vaccine induced a mucosal antibody response in the nose, mouth, and rectum. The Researcher speculate that replication-competent vector vaccines may have advantages over other types of vaccines because they can express viral proteins at higher levels and for longer durations. Additionally, this type of vaccine induces a mucosal immune response that is critical for limiting transmission of viruses that infect mucosal tissues. The vaccine platform could be highly adaptable for use against other viruses including HIV and SARS-CoV-2, according to the authors.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2021

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Air Pollution & Kids !

                                                   Air pollution puts children at higher risk of disease in adulthood

Children exposed to air pollution, such as wildfire smoke and car exhaust, for as little as one day may be doomed to higher rates of heart disease and other ailments in adulthood, according to a new study. It is the first of its kind to investigate air pollution's effects at the single cell level and to simultaneously focus on both the cardiovascular and immune systems in children. It confirms previous research that bad air can alter gene regulation in a way that may impact long-term health -- a finding that could change the way medical experts and parents think about the air children breathe, and inform clinical interventions for those exposed to chronic elevated air pollution. Using a combination of continuous daily pollutant concentrations measured at central air monitoring stations in Fresno, daily concentrations from periodic spatial sampling and meteorological and geophysical data. The researchers used a form of mass spectrometry to analyze immune system cells for the first time in a pollution study. The approach allowed for more sensitive measurements of up to 40 cell markers simultaneously, providing a more in-depth analysis of pollution exposure impacts than previously possible. Among their findings: Exposure to fine particulate known as PM2.5, carbon monoxide and ozone over time is linked to increased methylation, an alteration of DNA molecules that can change their activity without changing their sequence. This change in gene expression may be passed down to future generations. The researchers also found that air pollution exposure correlates with an increase in monocytes, white blood cells that play a key role in the buildup of plaques in arteries, and could possibly predispose children to heart disease in adulthood. Future studies are needed to verify the long-term implications.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2021

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Camlotel 5/40TM  
  Generic Name Amlodipine & Telmisartan
Strength Amlodipine 5 mg & Telmisartan 40 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category CCB & ARB Combination
Product FamotackTM 
Generic Name

Famotidine

Strength

40 mg

Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Antiulcerant (H2 antagonist)
  Product VardamateTM
  Generic Name Vardenafil
  Strength 10 mg & 20 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Anti-erectile dysfunction agent

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