Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  20     ISSUE:  2  February 2022 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management







Dear Doctor:

Welcome to online bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Eating Behavior !", "Memory Test !", "Heat & Mental Health !", "Skin Cancer Alert !", "Smoking Impacts Pregnancy !", "Singing In The Brain !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Eating Behavior !

 Children eat what they like, but food intake driven more by what they dislike

It is often said that children eat what they like, but the results of a new study suggests that when it comes to meals, children do not eat what they dislike. Researchers conducted an experiment involving 61 children ages 4-6 years to assess the relationship between their liking of foods in a meal and subsequent intake. Children participated in two identical laboratory sessions in the study conducted in Keller's Children's Eating Behavior Laboratory in the College of Health and Human Development, where seven foods like chicken nuggets, ketchup, potato chips, grapes, broccoli, cherry tomatoes and cookies were included on a tray. Also included were two beverages, fruit punch and milk. Before eating the meals, children were asked to rate their liking of each food on the following five-point scale - Super Bad, Bad, Maybe Good, Maybe Bad, Good and Super Good. After the children had eaten as much of the meal as they wanted, the researchers weighed what they ate and compared the results with what the kids said they liked and disliked. The correlations were striking. They revealed that when presented with a meal, disliking is a stronger predictor of what youngsters eat than liking. In other words, rather than high-liking driving greater intake, study data indicate that lower-liking led children to avoid some foods and leave them on the plate. Kids have a limited amount of room in their bellies, so when they are handed a tray, they gravitate toward their favorite thing and typically eat that first, and then make choices about whether to eat other foods. However, there was a strong correlation between consumption and no consumption in this case and the foods the children said they didn't like. Even at a young age, children's food choices are influenced by their parents and peers. They pick up on what is said around the table about what foods are good, and while that may not actually correspond to kids eating them, they are taking it all in, and that's affecting their perceptions of foods, So, itís important to be careful with assumptions about what truly is driving their behavior when they sit down to eat a meal. At a multi-component meal, rather than eating what they like, these data are more consistent with the notion that children do not eat what they dislike, the researchers concluded.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2022

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Memory Test !

 Having a poor score on a simple memory test may be linked to Alzheimerís biomarkers

Among people with no memory or thinking problems, having a poor score on a simple memory test may be linked to biomarkers in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease as well as very early signs of memory impairment that precede dementia by several years. These findings suggest that this test can be used to improve our ability to detect cognitive decline in the stage before people are diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Signs of Alzheimer's in the brain can be assumed with a simple test rather than expensive or invasive scans or lumbar punctures. For the test, people are shown pictures of items and given clues about the item's category, such as a picture of grapes with the clue of "fruit." Then participants are asked to remember the items, first on their own, then with the category cues for any items they did not remember. This type of controlled learning helps with the mild memory retrieval problems that occur in many healthy elderly people but does not have much impact on memory for people with dementia. The study involved 4,484 people with no cognitive problems and an average age of 71. The participants were divided into five groups based on their scores on the test, or stages zero through four. Stages zero through two reflect increasing difficulty with retrieving memories or items learned and precede dementia by five to eight years. In these stages, people have increasing trouble remembering the items on their own, but they continue to be able to remember items when given cues. In the third and fourth stages, people cannot remember all of the items even after they are given clues. These stages precede dementia by one to three years. The study participants also had brain scans to look for the beta-amyloid plaques in the brain that are markers of Alzheimer's disease, as well as to measure the volume of areas of the brain associated with Alzheimer's pathology. Half of the participants had no memory issues. Half had retrieval issues, issues for storage of memories or both. The researchers found that people who tested in the third and fourth stages were likely to have higher amounts of beta-amyloid in their brains than people in the lower stages. They were also more likely to have a lower volume in the hippocampus and other areas of the brain associated with Alzheimer's pathology.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2022

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Heat & Mental Health !

                                                Extreme heat linked to increase in mental health emergency care

During periods of extreme heat, it's been observed an increase in patients requiring mental health services, according to a new study led by Boston University School of Public Health researchers. The impact of heat on physical health is well documented, but few studies have examined the effects of extreme heat on mental health. This nationwide study is the largest and most comprehensive analysis of daily ambient temperature and mental health-related emergency department visits among US adults of all ages. As days of extreme heat are expected to increase due to worsening climate change, the findings fill a critical gap in research and provide evidence based support for proactive interventions and policy solutions that can reduce heat related crises. Days of extreme heat is defined as temperatures above the 95th percentile of temperature distributions by county were most strongly linked with ED visits for childhood onset behavioral disorders and substance use disorders, followed by anxiety, stress related, and somatoform disorders, and mood disorders. Extreme heat was also associated with ED visits for schizophrenia. The researchers found that the impact of heat on mental health was similar across age groups, and evident in both men and women and in every region of the country. These results show that heat can profoundly impact the mental health of people regardless of age, sex, or where they live. In future studies, the researchers aim to identify public health strategies that will help alert people to the risks posed by extreme heat and better protect the most vulnerable community members.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2022

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Skin Cancer Alert !

 Patients with rare Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) face 40% recurrence rate

Patients treated for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) face a five-year recurrence rate of 40%, markedly higher than the recurrence rates for melanoma and other skin cancers, according to research published in JAMA Dermatology. Additionally, in the study cohort of more than 600 patients, 95% of MCC recurrences happened in the first three years, suggesting that surveillance efforts should be focused on that span. Merkel cell cancer is a life-changing diagnosis. It can be time-consuming, costly and exhausting to undergo clinic visits, imaging studies and blood draws. Merkel cell cancer is a rare, aggressive skin cancer, more often fatal than invasive melanoma and basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas. Merkel cell carcinoma is composed of cells that look very similar to 'Merkel' cells that are a key part of the epidermis. Normal Merkel cells communicate touch-related information such as pressure and texture to the brain. The investigators found four factors associated with higher recurrence risk: advanced age, male sex, immunosuppression, and a known primary lesion amid clinically detectable nodal disease. As expected, survival among cohort patients was strongly dependent on cancer stage at time of diagnosis: The MCC-specific survival rate at five years post-treatment was 95% for patients diagnosed at stage I vs. 41% for patients diagnosed at stage IV. MCC survival is a more accurate measure of disease risk than overall survival, because patients, with a median age of 70 at diagnosis, are at "considerable" risk of death from conditions unrelated to cancer. Again, stage at diagnosis was associated with a meaningful difference: 90% of deaths among patients with stage IV disease were attributed to MCC, whereas just 57% of deaths among patients diagnosed at stage I were attributed to the disease. This is a tricky cancer to beat because it comes back after optimal therapy in almost half of patients.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2022

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Smoking impacts Pregnancy !

                    Smoking before and after conception is linked to delayed embryonic development

Smoking by mothers during the period immediately before and after conception is linked to a delay in embryonic development, smaller fetuses at the time of the 20-week ultrasound scan, and lower birth weight. The researchers found that by the tenth week of pregnancy, embryo development was delayed by nearly a day in women who smoked ten or more cigarettes a day compared to non-smokers, and by 1.6 days in smokers who had conceived by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). They also found that embryos were not able to "catch up" their development over the course of the pregnancy and were more likely to be born small for gestational age and with a median (average) birth weight 93 grams lower than babies born to non-smoking women. One of the key messages is that the delay in embryonic development due to mothers smoking in the periconceptional period is also associated with smaller foetal measurements at the 20-week ultrasound scan and a lower birth weight. Part of foetal and neonatal outcomes can be explained by smoking during the periconceptional period and the delay in embryonic development. The Carnegie Stages only cover embryonic development for the first 10 weeks of gestation, so the researchers could not compare the embryo shapes against an agreed standard beyond this stage, but the ultrasound scans and birth weights provided developmental information instead, including head and abdominal circumferences and thigh bone length. The impact of periconceptional maternal smoking on delaying embryonic development appears to have a greater effect in the second trimester of pregnancy than at birth. The results of this study emphasis the importance of smoking cessation prior to conception and that efforts to help women stop smoking should focus on this time window. Researchers commented that women should stop smoking from the very moment they plan to become pregnant. But it's always a good thing to stop smoking anyway, particularly at any stage of pregnancy. Smoking not only impacts an embryo's growth during pregnancy and birth weight, but also embryo development right from the very early stages of pregnancy.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2022

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Singing in the brain !

                                          Neurons in the human brain that respond only to singing

For the first time, MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) neuroscientists have identified a population of neurons in the human brain that lights up when they hear singing, but not other types of music. These neurons, found in the auditory cortex, appear to respond to the specific combination of voice and music, but not to either regular speech or instrumental music. The work builds on a 2015 study in which the same research team used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify a population of neurons in the brain's auditory cortex that responds specifically to music. In the new work, the researchers used recordings of electrical activity taken at the surface of the brain, which gave them much more precise information than fMRI. In their 2015 study, the researchers used fMRI to scan the brains of participants as they listened to a collection of 165 sounds, including different types of speech and music, as well as everyday sounds such as finger tapping or a dog barking. For that study, the researchers devised a novel method of analyzing the fMRI data, which allowed them to identify six neural populations with different response patterns, including the music-selective population and another population that responds selectively to speech. In the new study, the researchers hoped to obtain higher-resolution data using a technique known as electrocorticography (ECoG), which allows electrical activity to be recorded by electrodes placed inside the skull. This offers a much more precise picture of electrical activity in the brain compared to fMRI, which measures blood flow in the brain as a proxy of neuron activity. Patients are monitored over several days so that doctors can determine where their seizures are originating before operating. During that time, if patients agree, they can participate in studies that involve measuring their brain activity while performing certain tasks. For this study, the MIT team was able to gather data from 15 participants over several years. For those participants, the researchers played the same set of 165 sounds that they used in the earlier fMRI study. The location of each patient's electrodes was determined by their surgeons, so some did not pick up any responses to auditory input, but many did. Using a novel statistical analysis that they developed, the researchers were able to infer the types of neural populations that produced the data that were recorded by each electrode.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2022

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product MagnideTM  
  Generic Name Magnesium Oxide
Strength 365 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Mineral
Product AxlovirTM 
Generic Name

Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir


2x150mg+100 mg

Dosage form Combipack
Therapeutic Category Antiviral (COVID)
  Product Diliner TM DR
  Generic Name Duloxetine
  Strength 20 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Antidepressant

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