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Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  22     ISSUE:  2  February 2024 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals PLC.

Features

EDITORIAL TEAM

OMAR AKRAMUR RAB

MBBS, FCGP, FIAGP,

P G Dip. Business Management

Rubyeat Adnan

MBBS, MPH, CCD

Mushfiqur Rahman

MBBS

 

EDITORIAL

Dear Doctor:

Welcome to online bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Diabetes Test !", "Mast Cell !", "Anticancer Molecules !", "Oral Bacteria !", "Mouth Ulcer !", "Migraines During Menstruation !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals PLC. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,

 

Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS PLC.

 
Diabetes Test !

 Blood test could determine diabetes risks

A blood test could potentially be used to assess a patient's risk of type 2 diabetes. The most commonly used inflammatory biomarker currently used to predict the risk of type 2 diabetes is high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). However, emerging research has suggested that the joint assessment of biomarkers, rather than assessing each individually, would improve the chances of predicting diabetes risk and diabetic complications. Researcher investigated the connection between systematic inflammation, assessed by joint cumulative high-sensitivity CRP and another biomarker called monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), and incident type 2 diabetes. Specifically, increases in the MHR in each CRP stratum increased the risk of type 2 diabetes; concomitant increases in MHR and CRP presented significantly higher incidence rates and risks of diabetes. Furthermore, the association between chronic inflammation (reflected by the joint cumulative MHR and CRP exposure) and incident diabetes was highly age and sex-specific and influenced by hypertension, high cholesterol, or prediabetes. The addition of the MHR and CRP to the clinical risk model significantly improved the prediction of incident diabetes. The study found that females had a greater risk of type 2 diabetes conferred by joint increases in CRP and MHR. Researcher noted that the chronic progressive nature of diabetes and the enormous burden of subsequent comorbidities further highlighted the urgent need to address this critical health issue. Although aging and genetics are non-modifiable risk factors, other risk factors could be modified through lifestyle changes. Inflammation is strongly influenced by life activities and metabolic conditions such as diet, sleep disruptions, chronic stress, and glucose and cholesterol dysregulation, thereby indicating the potential benefits of monitoring risk-related metabolic conditions. Researcher said that the dual advantages of cost effectiveness and the wide availability of cumulative MHR and CRP in current clinical settings, potentiated the widespread use of these measures as a convenient tool for predicting the risk of diabetes.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2024

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Mast Cell !

 Mast cells is still a mystery 

The function of mast cells, which are part of the immune system, is still a mystery. Mast cells are found primarily in tissues that separate the outside and inside worlds of the body, such as the epithelia of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. Within the tissues, mast cells often reside near nerve endings. Mast cells are well known to persons suffering from allergies because they secrete messenger substances such as histamine, which cause annoying to health-threatening allergic symptoms. These symptoms occur when mast cells are activated by IgE class antibodies during repeated antigen contact. An important open question for the scientists was now: How can mast cells, as a component of the immune system, influence behavior? In what ways do immune cells "talk" to the brain? The scientists examined a variety of biologically active substances released by mast cells. These include leukotrienes, pro-inflammatory messengers known to activate sensory nerves. Leukotrienes therefore appear to be at least partly involved in avoidance behavior. Further immunological and neurobiological experiments are needed in the future to identify the nerve connections through which the mast cell signal is reported to the brain. Whether these substances are dangerous or not, it is important for the organism to avoid their further intake in order to prevent inflammatory diseases. This is an evolutionary advantage and finally a conclusive explanation of the physiological role of mast cells and IgE. Whether mast cells also contribute to the avoidance of harmful antigens in humans must be addressed in further studies.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2024

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Anticancer Molecules !

                                    Chemists synthesize unique anticancer molecules using novel approach

Nearly 30 years ago, scientists discovered a unique class of anticancer molecules in a family of bryozoans, a phylum of marine invertebrates found in tropical waters. The chemical structures of these molecules, which consist of a dense, highly complex knot of oxidized rings and nitrogen atoms, has attracted the interest of organic chemists worldwide, who aimed to recreate these structures from scratch in the laboratory. Researcher has succeeded in synthesizing eight of the compounds for the first time using an approach that combines inventive chemical strategy with the latest technology in small molecule structure determination. These molecules have been an outstanding challenge in the field of synthetic chemistry. A number of research groups have tried to recreate these molecules in the lab, but their structures are so dense, so intricately connected, that it hasn't been possible. In nature, the molecules are found in some species of bryozoa small, aquatic animals that feed by filtering prey from the water via tiny tentacles. Researchers worldwide consider bryozoans to be a potentially valuable source of new medications, and many molecules isolated from bryozoans have been studied as novel anticancer agents. However, the complexity of the molecules often limits their further development. The result of the new approach is eight new synthetic molecules with therapeutic potential and the promise of more new chemistry to come.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2024

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Oral Bacteria !

 Oral bacteria may increase heart disease risk

The study suggests another potential risk factor that physicians might screen for to identify individuals at risk of heart disease. It may also indicate that treatments for colonisation or infection with the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum may help reduce heart disease risk. A combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to heart disease, which is responsible for about one-third of all deaths worldwide. A build-up of plaque in the arteries that supply the heart with blood causes coronary heart disease, the most common type of heart disease, and can also lead to blockages that cause heart attacks. Researchers said, Although enormous progress has been made in understanding how coronary heart disease develops, our understanding of how infections, inflammation, and genetic risk factors contribute is still incomplete & wanted to help fill some of the gaps in our understanding of coronary heart disease by taking a more comprehensive look at the role of infections. Once the authors adjusted the results for known cardiovascular risk factors, they found that antibodies against F. nucleatum, a sign of previous or current infection by the bacterium were linked with a slightly increased risk of a cardiovascular event. "F. nucleatum might contribute to cardiovascular risk through increased systemic inflammation due to bacterial presence in the mouth, or through direct colonisation of the arterial walls or plaque lining the arterial walls," researchers explain. They also confirmed that individuals with high genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease are at elevated risk for cardiovascular events, as previous studies have shown.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2024

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Mouth Ulcer !

                   Double risk of dementia after mouth ulcer virus

People who have had the herpes virus at some point in their lives are twice as likely to develop dementia compared to those who have never been infected. A new study confirms previous research on whether herpes can be a possible risk factor for dementia. The herpes simplex virus infection is lifelong, but the symptoms can come and go over different periods of life. Many people never get any symptoms linked to their infection. The Scientist said that about this particular study is that the participants are roughly the same age, which makes the results even more reliable since age differences, which are otherwise linked to the development of dementia, cannot confuse the results. 55 million people worldwide are affected by dementia. Advanced age and carrying the Apo lipoprotein risk gene are already known risk factors. Research has previously been conducted to investigate whether the herpes simplex virus could also be a possible risk factor for dementia; something now confirmed in this study. It is exciting that the results confirm previous studies. More and more evidence is emerging from studies that, like our findings, point to the herpes simplex virus as a risk factor for dementia. Important conclusions from the study include the need to further investigate whether already known drugs against the herpes simplex virus can reduce the risk of dementia and the possibility of developing new vaccines. The results may drive dementia research further towards treating the illness at an early stage using common anti-herpes virus drugs, or preventing the disease before it occurs.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2024

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Migraines During Menstruation !

                             Low estrogen levels paired with higher CGRP levels may jump start migraine

As estrogen levels fluctuate, a new study has found for female participants with migraine, their levels of the protein calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that plays a key role in starting the migraine process also fluctuate. This elevated level of CGRP following hormonal fluctuations could help to explain why migraine attacks are more likely during menstruation and why migraine attacks gradually decline after menopause. The study involved three groups of female participants with episodic migraine. All had at least three days with migraine in the month before the study. The groups were those with a regular menstrual cycle, those taking oral contraceptives, and those who had gone through menopause. Each group was compared to a group of female participants of similar ages who did not have migraine. Each group had 30 people, for a total of 180. Researchers collected blood and tear fluid to determine CGRP levels. In those with regular menstrual cycles, the samples were taken during menstruation when estrogen levels are low and around the time of ovulation, when levels are the highest. In those taking oral contraceptives, samples were taken during the hormone-free time and the hormone-intake time. Samples were taken once from postmenopausal participants at a random time. The study found that female participants with migraine and a regular menstrual cycle had higher CGRP concentrations during menstruation than those without migraine. In contrast, female participants taking oral contraceptives and in postmenopause had similar CGRP levels in the migraine and non-migraine groups. The study also suggests that measuring CGRP levels through tear fluid is feasible and warrants further investigation, as accurate measurement in the blood is challenging due to its very short half-life.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, February 2024

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals PLC.

  Product MagnideTM  
  Generic Name Magnesium Oxide
Strength 365 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Mineral
Product AxlovirTM 
Generic Name

Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir

Strength

2x150mg+100 mg

Dosage form Combipack
Therapeutic Category Antiviral (COVID)
  Product Diliner TM DR
  Generic Name Duloxetine
  Strength 20 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Antidepressant

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