Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL. 17  ISSUE:  4  April  2019 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan





Dear Doctor,

Welcome to our healthcare bulletin 'e-SQUARE'.

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like -

"Antibiotic Access !", "Window to the Brain !", "'Mindreading' Neurons !", "Exercise in Pregnancy !,  "Methylphenidate Alert !", "Prenatal Allergies !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

 Antibiotic Access !

                               Lack of access to antibiotics is a major global health challenge

Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global public health threat spurred by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. The majority of the world's annual 5.7 million antibiotic-treatable deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries where the mortality burden from treatable bacterial infections far exceeds the estimated annual 700,000 deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections. In a new report researcher makes several recommendations proposing action on R&D (new antibiotics and rapid diagnostic tests), strengthening regulatory capacities, encouraging the development and diversification of quality local manufacturing, exploring innovative funding to reduce out-of-pocket payments, better treatment guidelines, and awareness rising. The findings of the report show that even after the discovery of new antibiotic, regulatory hurdles and substandard health facilities delay or altogether prevent widespread market entry and drug availability. Research shows that of 21 new antibiotics entering markets between 1999 and 2014, less than five were registered in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Just the mere existence of an effective antibiotic does not mean that they are available in countries where they are most needed. Lack of oversight and regulation in the drug manufacturing and supply chain leads to poor drug quality and falsified medicines. Researcher said that 17 percent of the substandard or falsified medicines reported to the WHO are antibiotics, and each year, more than 169,000 childhood pneumonia deaths are caused by falsified antibiotics. Even when antibiotics are available, patients are often unable to afford them. Moreover, limited government spending results in drug shortages in public health facilities which forces patients to go to private pharmacies or drugstores to buy medicines that should be provided free. Worldwide, the irrational use of antibiotics and poor antimicrobial stewardship lead to treatment failure and propagate the spread of drug resistance which, in turn, further narrows the available array of effective antibiotics. Finally, research and development for new antimicrobials, vaccines, and diagnostic tests has slowed since the 1960s as profitable investment in this area is limited by low sales volumes, short duration of treatment, competition with established products and cheaper generics, and the possibility that resistance will rapidly emerge. National governments, policymakers, pharmaceutical companies, public and private healthcare institutions, and international public health bodies all have a role to play in improving access to antibiotics worldwide.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, April 2019

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 Window to the Brain !

                        3D-printed transparent skull provides a window to the brain

Researchers have developed a unique 3D-printed transparent skull implant for mice that provides an opportunity to watch activity of the entire brain surface in real time. The device allows fundamental brain research that could provide new insight for human brain conditions such as concussions, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This technology allows us to see most of the cortex in action with unprecedented control and precision while stimulating certain parts of the brain. In the past, most scientists have looked at small regions of the brain and tried to understand it in detail. However, researchers are now finding that what happens in one part of the brain likely affects other parts of the brain at the same time. One of their first studies using the See-Shell device examines how mild concussions in one part of the brain affect other parts of the brain as it reorganizes structurally and functionally. Researcher said that mouse brains are very similar in many respects to human brains, and this device opens the door for similar research on mice looking at degenerative brain diseases that affect humans. The technology allows the researchers to see global changes for the first time at an unprecedented time resolution. The device allows researchers to record brain activity simultaneously while imaging the entire brain in real time. Another advantage to using this device is that the mouse's body did not reject the implant, which means that the researchers were able to study the same mouse brain over several months. Studies in mice over several months allow researchers to study brain aging in a way that would take decades to study in humans. Developing the device and showing that it works is just the beginning of what we will be able to do to advance brain research.

SOURCE:  HealthDay News, April 2019

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  'Mindreading' Neurons !

                                              'Mindreading' neurons simulate decisions of social partners

Scientists have identified special types of brain cells that may allow us to simulate the decision-making processes of others, thereby reconstructing their state of mind and predicting their intentions. Dysfunction in these 'simulation neurons' may help explain difficulties with social interactions in conditions such as autism and social anxiety. By contrast, they suggest overactive neurons could result in exaggerated simulation of what others might be thinking, which may play a role in social anxiety. Psychologists and philosophers have long suggested that simulation is the mechanism by which humans understand each other's minds. Yet, the neural basis for this complex process has remained unclear. The amygdala is well known for its diverse roles in social behavior and has been implicated in autism. Until now, however, it was unknown whether amygdala neurons also contribute to advanced social cognition, such as simulating others' decisions. The study allowed one animal to observe its partner's choices so that they could learn the pictures' reward values. Surprisingly, the researchers found that when an animal observed its partner, the observer's amygdala neurons seemed to play out a decision computation. By showing how specific types of neurons influence one another, this model suggests that the amygdala contains a 'decision circuit' which works out the animal's own choices and a separate 'simulation circuit' which computes a prediction of the social partner's choice. The scientists suggest that if simulation neurons were dysfunctional or completely absent, this could impoverish social behavior. Researcher said that If simulation neurons don't function properly, a person might not be able to relate very well to the mental states of others.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, April 2019

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 Exercise in Pregnancy !

                               Exercise during pregnancy protects offspring from obesity

A new study found that offspring born to mice that exercised during pregnancy were less likely to gain weight after consuming a high-fat diet later in life. Although previous studies have shown that exercise by obese females benefits their offspring, this is the first research to demonstrate that the same is true when non-obese females exercise. The researchers examined the offspring of mice that performed 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise every morning during pregnancy. Offspring born to mice that didn't exercise were used as a control group. At weaning, the offspring of the exercising mice showed increased levels of proteins associated with brown adipose tissue compared to the control group. This type of tissue converts fat and sugar into heat. The researchers also observed higher body temperatures in the exercise group, indicating that their brown adipose tissue was more efficient or had a higher thermogenic function which has been shown to prevent obesity and metabolic problems. After weaning, the offspring followed a high-fat diet for eight weeks. The mice in the exercise group not only gained less weight on the high-fat diet but also showed fewer symptoms of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and fatty liver disease. Researcher data suggest that the lack of exercise in healthy women during pregnancy can predispose their children to obesity and associated metabolic diseases partially through impairing thermogenic function. The researchers plan to perform additional studies to better understand the biological mechanisms responsible for the improved metabolic health in offspring of mothers who exercised.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, April 2019

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Methylphenidate Alert !

          Childhood methylphenidate treatment predicts antidepressant use during adolescence

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among children and adolescents worldwide. The standard of care for ADHD typically includes long-term treatment with stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH)-based medications. Over the last few decades a worldwide escalation in MPH-based medication prescriptions for treating ADHD has been reported, particularly among children and adolescents. As a result, the long-term effects of exposure to MPH have become a major public health interest, particularly given the high prevalence, long duration, and early age of MPH treatment onset. Over the years research has shown that adherence to taking MPH-based medications as prescribed, mostly during or after the onset of puberty, prevents depression and anxiety later on. But a new, 12-year longitudinal study, which monitored 6,830 children from early childhood into adolescence, has shown that consistent treatment with MPH-based medications during childhood increases the risk of antidepressant use during adolescence. The researchers sampled all children who were first prescribed with MPH-based medications between the ages of six and eight, and then recorded individual adherence by tracking how many months the medication was purchased in relation to the amount prescribed until the age of 12. It was found that children with high adherence (above 50%) were at significantly greater risk of being prescribed with antidepressants between the ages of 12-18, after controlling for individual risk factors, such as parental use of antidepressants. Researcher said that Parents, doctors and teachers should be aware that prolonged consumption of MPH-based medications beginning at these ages can be a predictor of subsequent use of antidepressants. While greater adherence is likely associated with a greater beneficial effect on ADHD symptoms, the underlying emotional and behavioral dysregulation among symptomatic children may still be present during adolescence, as reflected by the increase in antidepressant medications, the study concluded.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, April 2019

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 Prenatal Allergies !

                                                         Prenatal allergies prompt sexual changes in offspring

A single allergic reaction during pregnancy prompts sexual-development changes in the brains of offspring that last a lifetime, new research suggests. Female rats born to mothers exposed to an allergen during pregnancy acted more characteristically "male” mounting other female rodents, for instance and had brains and nervous systems that looked more like those seen in typical male animals. The male offspring also showed a tendency toward more female characteristics and behaviors, though the changes were not as significant. Researcher said, Sexual development occurs on a spectrum and, in and of them, these shifts in sexual behavior after allergy exposure are not particularly troubling. Researchers understand the interplay between allergens and brain development, however, and highlight that early life immune activation could be a source of normal variations in female behavior, which haven't been as well-studied. And these types of brain changes as a response to an allergen could mean changes in other areas of concern, such as cognitive development. Males born to the allergy-exposed mothers behaved less like typical male rats. Researcher especially interested in the profound changes seen in female brain development, because that's an area that hasn't been as well-studied in neuroscience. Though it's too soon to draw connections between what has been seen in the rats and human development, it may be worthwhile to explore further how medications and other factors during pregnancy may contribute to developmental changes in the fetus.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, April 2019

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Flugal TM
  Generic Name Fluconazole
  Strength 2mg/ml
  Dosage form IV Infusion
Therapeutic Category Systemic Antifungal
  Product Daizy TM
Generic Name



2 mg

Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Hormone
  Product Bisocam TM
  Generic Name Bisoprolol+Amlodipine

2.5mg+5 mg

  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Antihypertensive

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