Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  17     ISSUE: 8  August  2019 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan



Dear Doctor,

Hope that you are enjoying this online healthcare bulletin.
Our current issue focused on some interesting features like -

Cell Suicide !", "'Silent' Strokes !", "Postnatal Over Nutrition !", "Conduct Disorder !",  "Gut-Brain Connection !", "PUVA Light Therapy !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

 Cell Suicide !

Cell suicide could hold key for brain health and food security

Research into the self-destruction of cells in humans and plants could lead to treatments for neurodegenerative brain diseases and the development of disease-resistant plants. A study identified the role certain proteins play in cellular suicide. Lead researcher said that to sustain life, diverse organisms as if humans and plants have cells that commit suicide for the benefit of the rest of the organism. This is a key part of our own immune response infected cells will often commit suicide, so the greater organism can live. Surprisingly though, studying proteins involved in the cell death process in human neurons has led us to discover how cell death also occurs in plants. The researcher team used a combination of structural biology, biochemistry, neurobiology and plant science to analyses cells and proteins, laying the foundation for some potentially groundbreaking innovations. A particular protein SARM1 is essential for this brain cell breakdown across different neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of cell death processes may also lead to the development of disease-resistant plants, helping boost yields, minimize waste and bolster food security. Specific plant resistance genes can protect plants from disease, but how the products of these genes work has poorly understood. Part of this resistance is that similar to human neurons infected cells self-destruct. This takes us a step closer to making effective synthetic resistance genes that can used to provide additional protection worldwide from crop diseases.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2019

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 'Silent' Strokes !

'Silent' strokes common after surgery, linked to cognitive decline

Researchers have discovered that covert or 'silent' strokes are common in seniors after they have elective, non-cardiac surgery and double their risk of cognitive decline one year later. While an overt stroke causes obvious symptoms, such as weakness in one-arm or speech problems that last more than a day, a covert stroke is not obvious except on brain scans, such as MRI. Each year, approximately 0.5 per cent of the 50 million people age 65 years or greater worldwide who have major, non-cardiac surgery will suffer an overt stroke, but until now little was known about the incidence or impacts of silent stroke after surgery. Researcher team found that one in 14 people over age 65 who had elective, non-cardiac surgery had a silent stroke, suggesting that as many as three million people in this age category globally suffer a covert stroke after surgery each year. Vascular brain injuries, both overt and covert, are more frequently being detected, recognized and prevented through research. In near future, there will be a meaningful discovery that will facilitate tackling the issue of cognitive decline after surgery.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2019

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 Postnatal Over Nutrition !

Postnatal over nutrition linked to aging

Researchers have found a new answer to an old question: how can over nutrition during infancy lead to long-lasting health problems such as diabetes? Islets of mice that were over nourished during the first 21 days after birth (their 'infancy') tended to gain DNA methylation tags, chemical modifications that alter gene expression, while mice that were not over nourished showed similar changes, but much later in life. Previous studies also have shown that patients with Type-2 diabetes have altered DNA methylation, the addition of methyl chemical groups, in their insulin-producing pancreatic islets. These alterations have linked to islet malfunction and the onset of diabetes, but how they occur remains a mystery. Epigenetics refers to molecular mechanisms that determine which genes will be turned on or off in different cell types. The researchers worked with two groups of mice, one was over nourished during infancy and the other was not and represented the control group. “Adjusting litter size during the suckling period provides a natural means to over nourish mouse pups. The results revealed that islets from control mice tended to gain DNA methylation as they aged. Compared to controls, however, islets of over nourished mice showed increases in DNA methylation right at weaning. Unexpectedly, there was a substantial overlap between the DNA methylation profile of middle-aged controls and that of the much younger 21-day-old over nourished mice. Lead researcher believe that optimizing nutrition during these critical periods of development will prove to be an effective approach to prevent adult disease.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2019

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 Conduct Disorder !

Brain wiring differences identified in children with conduct disorder

Behavioral problems in young people with severe antisocial behavior known as conduct disorder could be caused by differences in the brain's wiring that link the brain's emotional centers together, according to new research. Conduct disorder affects around 1 in 20 children and teenagers. It is characterize by a wide range of antisocial or aggressive behaviors such as vandalism, weapon use and harm to others. The exact causes of conduct disorder thought to be an interaction between genetic and environmental factors are not well understood, but researcher have found that there are distinctive differences in white matter pathways (the brain's structural wiring) among young people who have the condition. One of the largest differences identified by the team was in an area of the brain called the corpus callosum. Researchers found that boys and girls with conduct disorder showed the same structural abnormalities within this pathway in the brain. Additionally they found that callous traits, such as reduced empathy and guilt, explained some of the white matter differences seen in youths with conduct disorder suggesting that these traits are important factors to consider when exploring differences in the brains of young people with conduct disorder. This is the first large-scale study looking at white-matter pathways in the brains of girls and boys with conduct disorder. The results demonstrate that there are reliable differences in the connectivity of these pathways, and that these differ from those seen in other mental health conditions such as depression. It will be important to study whether these white matter changes cause conduct disorder by studying how the brain develops over time, and whether these brain changes can modified by psychological interventions.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2019

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 Gut-Brain Connection !

Gut-brain connection helps explain how overeating leads to obesity

Eating extra servings typically shows up on the scale later, but how this happens has not been clear. A new study shows gut-brain connection that helps explain how those extra servings lead to weight gain. Mice consuming a high-fat diet show increased levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), a hormone produced in the gut that is involved in managing the body's energy balance. The study reports that the excess GIP travels through the blood to the brain where it inhibits the action of leptin, the satiety hormone; consequently, the animals continue eating and gain weight. Blocking the interaction of GIP with the brain restores leptin's ability to inhibit appetite and results in weight loss in mice. Researchers know that leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells, is important in the control of body weight in both humans and mice. Leptin works by triggering in the brain the sensation of feeling full when we have eaten enough, and we stop eating. However, in obesity resulting from consuming a high-fat diet or overeating, the body stops responding to leptin signals it does not feel full, and eating continues, leading to weight gain. Then the researchers evaluated the effect blocking the GIP receptor would have on obesity by infusing directly into the brain a monoclonal antibody. These data indicate that GIP and its receptor in the hypothalamus, a brain area that regulates appetite, are necessary and sufficient to elicit leptin resistance. This is a previously unrecognized role of GIP on obesity that plays directly into the brain.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2019

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 PUVA Light Therapy !

Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

The term 'PUVA' stands for 'psoralen' and 'UV-A radiation'. Psoralens are natural plant-based compounds that can extracted from umbelliferous plants such as giant hogweeds. Plant extracts containing psoralens were already used in Ancient Egypt for the treatment of skin diseases. Modern medical use began in the 1950s. From then on, they were applied for light-dependent treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and vitiligo. From the 1970s onwards, PUVA therapy was used to treat a type of skin cancer known as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Researchers analyse the precise mechanism of this binding reaction. They used time-resolved laser spectroscopy for this purpose. & found that after the psoralen molecule has absorbed UV light the reaction takes place in two stages. First, a single bond between the psoralen molecule and thymine forms. A second bond formation then yields a four-membered ring (cyclobutane) permanently connecting the two moieties. The researchers also able to demonstrate that the first stage takes place within a microsecond, while the second needs around 50 microseconds. They compared this process with the damaging of the 'naked' DNA by UV light. That process also frequently results in cyclobutane rings, but the process takes place considerably faster than when psoralens are present.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2019

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Product BimatorTM Eye Drops
Generic Name Bimatoprost +Timolol
  Strength 0.03%+0.5%
  Dosage form Eye Drops
  Therapeutic Category Antiglaucoma
Product XfinTM
Generic Name


Strength 250 mg
Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Systemic Antifungal
Product Maxrin® D
  Generic Name Tamsulosin HCL+Dutasteride
  Strength 0.4 mg+0.5 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category BPH Products

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