Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  19     ISSUE: 8  August  2021 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management








Dear Doctor,

Hope that you all  are doing well in this crutial situation.
Our current health bulletin issue focused on some latest features like -

Long COVID Syndrome !", "Antibodies & Virus !", "Anticoagulants in COVID-19 !", "Male Infertility !",  "Golden Window!", "Leukemia- New Hope !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

 Long COVID Syndrome !

Blood clotting may be the root cause of Long COVID syndrome

In a research the researchers examined some patients with symptoms of Long COVID syndrome to better understand if abnormal blood clotting is involved. They discovered that clotting markers were significantly elevated in the blood of patients with Long COVID syndrome compared with healthy controls. These clotting markers were higher in patients who required hospitalization with their initial COVID-19 infection, but they also found that even those who were able to manage their illness at home still had persistently high clotting markers. It is also observed that higher clotting was directly related to other symptoms of Long COVID syndrome, such as reduced physical fitness and fatigue. Even though markers of inflammation had all returned to normal levels, this increased clotting potential was still present in Long COVID patients. As clotting markers were elevated while inflammation markers had returned to normal, results suggest that the clotting system may be involved in the root cause of Long COVID syndrome. Understanding the root cause of a disease is the first step toward developing effective treatments. Millions of people are already dealing with the symptoms of Long COVID syndrome, and more people will develop Long COVID as the infections among the unvaccinated continue to occur.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, August 2021

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 Antibodies & Virus !

 Antibodies block specific viruses that cause arthritis, brain infections

Researchers at Washington University have identified two antibodies that protect animals from disease caused by alphaviruses. The antibodies worked for every alphavirus tested, meaning they potentially could form the basis of treatments or serve as a template for a universal vaccine. In the U.S., the alphavirus is an important concern, most about is chikungunya virus, which can cause debilitating arthritis, but it’s also seen in the cases of encephalitis caused by Eastern equine encephalitis virus. Alphaviruses used to be limited to the tropics, but in recent years they've been spreading into new geographic areas. Most are still uncommon, but together they cause millions of infections and a considerable burden of disease, and there is no specific therapies or vaccines for any of them. The alphavirus group includes more than 30 species, split into two branches. Viruses such as chikungunya, Mayaro, O'nyong-nyong and Ross River, all of which cause fever, rash and arthritis, historically had been limited to Africa, Asia and Europe. However, beginning in 2013, chikungunya worked its way into the Caribbean and parts of North and South America. The other branch of alphaviruses, found in the Americas, includes Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and causes brain infections. To find antibodies that would protect against the whole alphavirus group, a group of researchers screened a set of antibodies produced by two people who had been infected with chikungunya virus. They tested the antibodies against a panel of alphaviruses representing both branches of the group. Two antibodies recognized all of the alphaviruses tested. Further experiments showed that the antibodies worked by blocking developing virus particles from exiting one cell en route to infecting another. The antibodies attach to part of a viral protein called E1 that is exposed only during the exiting process. Once the virus has fully formed and detached from the cell, the E1 protein is folded into the virus particle and hidden.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, August 2021

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 Anticoagulants in COVID-19 !

Anticoagulants help moderately ill COVID-19 patients

Moderately ill COVID-19 patients treated with therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with unfractionated or low molecular-weight heparin were 27% less likely to need cardiovascular respiratory organ support such as intubation, said the researcher. Moderately ill patients had a 4% increased chance of survival until discharge without requiring organ support with anticoagulants, according to the study involving 2,200 patients. The 4% increase in survival to discharge without needing organ support represents a very meaningful clinical improvement in these patients. If we treat 1,000 patients who are hospitalized with COVID-19 with moderate illness, an additional 40 patients would have meaningful improvement in clinical status. Participating platforms for the study, which defined moderately ill patients as those who did not need intensive care unit-level support, included Antithrombotic Therapy to Ameliorate Complications of COVID-19 (ATTACC); A Multicenter, Adaptive, Randomized Controlled Platform Trial of the Safety and Efficacy of Antithrombotic Strategies in Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19 (ACTIV-4a); and Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial Adaptive Platform Trial for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (REMAP-CAP). A parallel study in The New England Journal of Medicine found that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation did not help severely ill patients.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, August 2021

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 Male Infertility !

Autoimmune disorder may underlie male infertility

Male factors account for a large portion of infertility in couples, and the mechanisms underlying male infertility are poorly understood. This study represents a previously underexplored mechanism by which fertility can be impacted through autoimmune disease. Aire (Autoimmune Regulator) is a gene expressed in the thymus that plays a vital role in teaching the immune system to distinguish between the body's own cells and invaders. Aire-deficient mice reproduce many of the features of APS-1 in humans. To determine fertility, Aire-deficient and wild-type male mice were paired with wild-type female mice. Aire-deficient males exhibited dramatically reduced mating frequency and fertility; those able to mate took up to two weeks to do so, and their sperm quality was poor. Sperm from the Aire-deficient males were rarely able to produce litters, and even when they were used for in vitro fertilization, could not produce viable embryos. Aire-deficient males were found to produce low levels of testosterone and develop autoimmune disease against many components of the male reproductive tract, especially in the epididymis. However, the investigators could not rule out the possibility that Aire might be expressed in these organs, not just in the thymus. It is possible that the injuries could be caused by a lack of expression in the tissues themselves. Using a fluorescence reporter model in which cells change color based on present or past expression of Aire, they confirmed that the gene can be expressed in the developing mouse reproductive system. The correlation between impaired central immune tolerance and fertility has potential implications not only for male APS-1 patients but may also provide important insights into both male autoimmune and unexplained cases of infertility.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, August 2021

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 Golden Window !

Pinpoints the ‘golden window’ for IVF success

Researchers have found a way to better pinpoint the "golden window" when a womb is ready for pregnancy, in a discovery that could help boost IVF success rates. It's long been known that correctly timing an embryo transfer is critical to the chance of achieving pregnancy. Identifying the right moment in a woman's cycle with absolute precision remains a challenge however, contributing to low IVF success rates, which remain on average under 50%.The team discovered that the levels of this molecule on the womb's surface decrease at a certain point in the menstrual cycle. This allows the womb to become stickier, opening the "golden window" for pregnancy success. Previously, scientists believed implantation hinged on molecules that actively promoted the adhesion of an embryo to the wall of the uterus. The research found a significant difference in IVF success rates when embryos were transferred while this molecule was present or absent on the surface of the uterus. Every embryo is precious for families struggling with infertility, so getting the timing right is critical, said by lead researcher & hope with further development our discovery could help clinicians identify precisely when each patient has the greatest chance of achieving pregnancy, delivering fully personalized IVF treatment.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, August 2021

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 Leukemia- New Hope !

CRISPR screening tool identifies new drug target for leukemia 

It’s been discovered that cancer cells in patients with AML rely heavily on ZMYND8, and thanks to a sophisticated CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) based screening approach, that pinpointed the exact 'druggable pocket' to target. The findings suggest that delivering drug inhibitors against ZMYND8 could disrupt the AML vulnerable gene regulation circuits. AML affects more than 20,000 patients a year, including both children and adults, and has a five-year survival rate of just 27 percent for people over 20. The standard of care includes chemotherapy; however, not all patients respond, so newer approaches are needed to expand options and improve survival. CRISPR has allowed scientists to not only modify genes with more ease and less cost than previous approaches, but also enabled them to simultaneously screen for thousands of specific functional protein domains with high potential for therapeutic targeting. The researchers used CRISPR to precisely disrupt the domain function of proteins in cancer cells, map their molecular functions, and modify them to use in mouse models. They found that inhibiting the epigenetic reader function of ZMYND8 in mice left them with smaller tumors and better survival. The researchers also found a biomarker - the expression level or the epigenetic status of the gene IRF8 from AML cells to predict the sensitivity of cancer cells to a ZMYND8 inhibitor. Furthermore, the researchers validated the high expression of IRF8 and presence of IRF8 enhancer DNA element using blood samples from patients treated at Penn Medicine (A world-renowned academic medical center in Philadelphia, USA) to support their finding. It opens a new door toward better treatments for these patients using next-generation epigenetic inhibitors.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, August 2021

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Product Bacilax 9TM  
Generic Name Probiotic combination
  Strength 9 billion
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Probiotic
Product TazocilinTM
Generic Name


Strength 2 gm+250mg
Dosage form IV Infusion
Therapeutic Category Penicillin Antibiotic
Product Vertina-DXTM
  Generic Name Doxylamine Succinate+Pyridoxine HCl
  Strength 20 mg+20 mg
Dosage form ER Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Antiemetic

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