Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  17     ISSUE:  7    July 2019 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management






Dear Doctor:

Welcome to our healthcare bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Robot Likeability  !", "Childhood Cancer !", "HIV Vaccine !", "Blood Clot Risk !", "Skin Lymphoma !", "Pinpointed Multiple Sclerosis !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send us your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 Robot Likeability  !

Brain network evaluates robot likeability

Researchers have identified a network of brain regions that work together to determine if a robot is a worthy social partner, according to a new study. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, researcher evaluated brain activity from the prefrontal cortex and amygdala as human participants scored images of robots on their likability, familiarly, and human-likeness. The participants also chose the robot from which they would prefer to receive a gift, indicating their social value. Participants preferred more lifelike robots, but disliked the ones that appeared "too human," including artificially altered humans. Activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex followed the same pattern, increasing with the more lifelike robots until dropping significantly in relation to the most lifelike choice. The scientists concluded that each of several brain regions had a unique role in assessing the images, and the combination of their inputs determined whether a robot was likeable. This direct representation of a psychological pattern in the brain provides insight into how people respond to and assess artificial social partners. The findings may also apply to the evaluation of human social partners.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, July 2019

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 Childhood Cancer !

Maternal obesity linked to childhood cancer

A new study found that children born to obese mothers were more likely to develop cancer in early childhood. The researchers found a correlation between pre-pregnancy body-mass index (BMI) in mothers and subsequent cancer diagnosis in their offspring, even after correcting for known risk factors, such as newborn size and maternal age. Researcher pored through nearly 2 million birth records and about 3,000 cancer registry records filed in the state of Pennsylvania between 2003 and 2016 and found that children born to severely obese mothers BMI above 40 had a 57% higher risk of developing leukemia before age 5. Weight and height also were individually associated with increased leukemia risk. Further analysis showed that it was not simply that larger women were giving birth to larger babies or that heavier women tended to be older known risk factors for childhood cancer but rather, a mother's size independently contributed to her child's risk. The researchers think the root cause of the effect they're seeing has something to do with insulin levels in the mother's body during fetal development, or possibly changes to the mother's DNA expression that are passed to her offspring. Importantly, not all levels of obesity carry the same risk. Among the obese women in the study, higher BMI came with higher cancer rates in their children. From a prevention point-of-view, maintaining a healthy weight is not only good for the mother, but also for the children, too.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, July 2019

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 HIV Vaccine !

                               Developing a novel HIV vaccine: DNA and recombinant proteins

Researchers have developed a novel vaccine consisting of DNA and recombinant proteins. Proteins composed of a portion of an HIV protein and another unrelated protein. This vaccine was tested in monkeys and was shown to induce antibodies similar to those associated with protection from HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Researchers first identified a part of the virus, which, when bound to antibodies, results in the destruction of the virus and of virus-infected cells & designed a vaccine that would induce these types of antibodies. This approach to vaccine design is called "reverse vaccinology." The target identified by the researchers on the virus is called the V1V2 loop of the gp120 envelope protein. In studies of monkeys vaccinated with gp120 DNA and a combination of three novel recombinant proteins carrying the V1V2 region, antibodies were induced that display many different antiviral functions. These antibodies were of the type that had been associated with a reduced rate of HIV infection in previous human clinical trials. Researchers from several institutions in the United States, has been working for more than a decade on a novel approach to developing a vaccine against HIV/AIDS. The vaccine that was developed is safe, in that it contains nothing that is infectious to the individual vaccinated. In the study now, being published that this novel vaccine induces the desired antibodies in monkeys, which suggests strongly those similar protective antibodies can be induced in humans and may play an important role in preventing HIV infection. Showing that a vaccine will induce antibodies in monkeys is important since it suggests that humans will react similarly. The successful production of antibodies in monkeys with the novel vaccine studied in this report indicates that the vaccine should move forward to first-in-human studies to determine if it is as safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic as it was in monkeys.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, July 2019

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 Blood Clot Risk !

New link between hypoxia and blood clot risk

Research has found how hypoxia (a low concentration of oxygen) decreases Protein S, a natural anticoagulant, resulting in an increased risk for the development of potentially life-threatening blood clots (thrombosis). Although hypoxia has been associated with an increased risk for thrombosis, this research showed for the first time a molecular cause. "Human Protein S (PS) is a natural blood anticoagulant. Although discovered 40 years ago, the exact mechanism of PS's anticoagulant action was deduced only in the last few years. PS deficiency could occur in hypoxia but not why. With this study, our group identified the gene regulatory mechanism by which oxygen concentration controls PS production. Because Protein S is primarily produced in the liver, the team of researchers cultured human hepatocarcinoma cells at normal oxygen and hypoxic conditions and then measured levels of the protein. Increasing hypoxia not only reduced PS but also significantly increased a protein that turns on the gene to produce hypoxia. This suggested that the protein, hypoxia-inducing factor 1, might regulate Protein S, which the researchers confirmed through biochemical and genetic approaches in a mouse model. Lead researcher said that this study would open a new direction for targeting hypoxia-mediated thrombotic disorders.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, July 2019

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 Skin Lymphoma !

Antibiotics can inhibit skin lymphoma

Many patients with the rare lymphoma cancer, CTCL (Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), contract staphylococcal infections in the skin. CTCL is a cancer in the so-called T-cells of the immune system, which shows in the skin. Therefore, the patient's immune system is weakened and the skin is less resistant to bacteria. In a new study, researchers shown that aggressive treatment with antibiotics not only inhibits the staphylococcal bacteria, but also the cancer cells. The number of cancer cells is reduced and the cancer is significantly diminished for a period of time in patients with severe skin inflammation. During a staphylococcal infection, the healthy immune cells in the body are working at full throttle. They produce growth substances called cytokines, which are used to get the immune system up and running. The cancer cells latch onto the growth substances, using them to accelerate their own growth. The research results show for the first time that the antibiotic treatment can slow down this process. The finding is the result of many years' research where the researchers have conducted molecular studies and laboratory tests, taken tissue samples from skin and blood and conducted clinical studies of carefully selected patients. It is still difficult to say whether the new knowledge may be transferred to other types of cancer. For the researchers at the LEO Foundation Skin Immunology Research Center, the next step is to initially look more closely at the link between cancer and bacteria.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, July 2019

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 Pinpointed Multiple Sclerosis !

Cell types affected in brains of multiple sclerosis patients pinpointed

Scientists have discovered that a specific brain cell known as a 'projection neuron' has a central role to play in the brain changes seen in multiple sclerosis (MS). The research, published today in Nature, shows that projection neurons are damaged by the body's own immune cells, and that this damage could underpin the brain shrinkage and cognitive changes associated with MS. These new findings provide a platform for specific new MS therapies that target damaged brain cells to be developed. Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the brain and the spinal cord that affects over two million people worldwide. The potential symptoms of MS are wide ranging and can include problems with vision, movement and cognitive abilities. Previous research has shown that a brain region called the cortex shrinks over time in MS patients, known as cortical atrophy. The processes driving this cortical shrinkage have, until now, been unclear. In a new study researchers used post-mortem human brain samples from MS patients to study a wide range of cell types implicated in the disease, and compared their findings to brain samples donated from people that did not have MS. In healthy people, these projection neurons are involved in communicating information between different areas of the brain. It is therefore possible that the damage to these cells can affect cognitive abilities in MS patients. Moreover, the loss of this particular cell types helps explain why brains of MS patients shrink over time -- the more cells that are damaged and lost, the less space the brain takes up. The researchers also showed that immune cells in the brains of MS patients were targeting projection neurons and causing cell stress and damage. Lead researcher said that these new techniques have wide applicability in the understanding of human neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders and are providing new insight into not only MS, but also autism spectrum disorder.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, July 2019

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product VolinacTM Gel
  Generic Name Diclofenac Sodium
  Strength 10 mg/gm
  Dosage form Gel
  Therapeutic Category NSAID
  Product Iventi-DTM   Eye Drops
Generic Name Moxifloxacin+Dexamethasone
Strength 0.50%+0.1%
Dosage form Eye Drops
Therapeutic Category Antiinfective and Intiinflammatory combination
  Product SuvotolTM
  Generic Name Suvorexant
  Strength 10 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Sedative Hypnotic

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