Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  21     ISSUE:  7    July 2023 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management

Rubyeat Adnan


Moshfiqur Rahman



Dear Doctor:

Welcome to our healthcare bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Mast Cell !", "Cholesterol Study !", "Migraine Headache !", "Antibiotics Resistance !", "Sleep Alert !", "Insulin Biology !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We always appratiate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 Mast Cell !

Mast cells is still a mystery

The function of mast cells, which are part of the immune system, is still a mystery. Mast cells are found primarily in tissues that separate the outside and inside worlds of the body, such as the epithelia of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. Within the tissues, mast cells often reside near nerve endings. Mast cells are well known to persons suffering from allergies because they secrete messenger substances such as histamine, which cause annoying to health-threatening allergic symptoms. These symptoms occur when mast cells are activated by IgE class antibodies during repeated antigen contact. An important open question for the scientists was now: How can mast cells, as a component of the immune system, influence behavior? In what ways do immune cells "talk" to the brain? The scientists examined a variety of biologically active substances released by mast cells. These include leukotrienes, pro-inflammatory messengers known to activate sensory nerves. Leukotrienes therefore appear to be at least partly involved in avoidance behavior. Further immunological and neurobiological experiments are needed in the future to identify the nerve connections through which the mast cell signal is reported to the brain. Whether these substances are dangerous or not, it is important for the organism to avoid their further intake in order to prevent inflammatory diseases. This is an evolutionary advantage and finally a conclusive explanation of the physiological role of mast cells and IgE. Whether mast cells also contribute to the avoidance of harmful antigens in humans must be addressed in further studies.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, July, 2023

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 Cholesterol Study !

Cholesterol study reveals effects on lung function and brain size

Statins reduce dementia risk but impairs lung function. The study in the world to compare cholesterol lowering medications to a range of clinical and heart and brain MRI biomarkers. In the vast number of cases, medication prescribed for high cholesterol does what it promises: significantly lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and age-related diseases. It does not cause any other adverse health conditions except diarrhea in some people. However, lipid lowering medications that clear cholesterol from the cells known as PCSK9 inhibitors could impair lung function and further studies are needed on their long-term side effects, researchers said. Genetic variants reflecting another cholesterol lowering medication, statins, were found to correlate with higher BMI and body fat, as well as reduced testosterone. Statins are the most common cholesterol lowering medication prescribed. One unexpected benefit of taking statins was found, with some people seeing an increase in brain volume of the hippocampus, which may reduce the risk of dementia and depression. The study reveals associations with lung function and brain size, which may influence how these drugs are prescribed or repurposed in the future. These findings help us to understand how people may react to different drugs and assess the viability of new drug pathways. Compared to statins, which inhibit the production of cholesterol, PCSK9 drugs destroy cholesterol in the cells. This normally would not be practical in a clinical trial or for such a large sample size, but genetic analyses can really help with drug safety profiling by uncovering links with diseases and biomarkers. More than 200 million people around the world take statin drugs for their heart health.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, July 2023

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 Migraine Headache !

 Prazosin prevent post-traumatic headache

Persistent posttraumatic headaches are the most common long-term consequence of mild traumatic brain causing substantial distress and disability at home and work. Although these headaches usually resemble migraine headaches symptomatically, they often fail to respond to the prevention treatments useful for migraines. The FDA approved prazosin to treat hypertension in 1976. An earlier study by members of the research group suggested that prazosin could reduce the frequency and severity of headaches caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI).To test this effect, the researchers conducted a pilot study with 48 Veterans and service members with headaches caused by mild TBI, also known as a concussion. Participants took gradually increasing doses of prazosin for five weeks before receiving the maximum dose for 12 weeks. The study showed that the drug was well-tolerated, and researchers reported that morning drowsiness was the only adverse effect. Before the trial began, study participants had an average of 18 headache days each month. By the end of the 12-week period, those taking prazosin only had headaches for an average of six days a month. Participants receiving a placebo reported some reduction in headaches, but still had headaches about 12 days a month. Significantly more participants in the prazosin group had at least 50% fewer headaches during the 12 weeks of taking a full dose of medication. Participants taking prazosin also saw significant decreases in how much headaches impacted their quality of life. By the end of the trial, those taking prazosin reported that headaches had "some impact" on their daily ability to function, while participants given a placebo continued to report "severe impact" of headaches. This study is the only clinical trial of an oral medication to demonstrate efficacy for posttraumatic headache because prazosin is widely used to treat PTSD trauma nightmares and sleep disruption, Prazosin now offers an evidence-based approach to alleviate the suffering of Veterans and service members who have struggled for years with frequent posttraumatic headaches.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, July, 2023

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Antibiotics Resistance !

Resistant bacteria are a global burden

Staphylococci are becoming resistant to antibiotics and these infections can be difficult to treat. Antibiotics resistance is an increasing problem, especially on a global scale. And when this relatively simple infection which suddenly cannot be treated with antibiotics, the situation can turn serious, sometimes life-threatening. Therefore, all over the world, a lot of resources are being invested in fighting antibiotics resistance in staphylococcus aureus infections, and a new study among skin lymphoma patients has produced positive results. A new substance called endolysins has proven capable of killing both resistant and non-resistant staphylococcus aureus without the need for antibiotics. The discovery is good news to patients with a weak immune system to whom a staphylococcus aureus infection can be serious and, at worst, fatal. But it also adds to the knowledge of other forms of treatment. To people who are severely ill with e.g. skin lymphoma, staphylococci can be a huge, sometimes insoluble problem, as many are infected with a type of staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to antibiotics. Antibiotics not give to everyone, because need to minimize resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is important find new ways of treating and not the least to prevent these infections. Researcher have been testing the substance on skin samples from patients, and it does appear to kill staphylococcus aureus from patients. Endolysins do not care whether the bacterium is resistant to antibiotics or not, because it does not work in the same way as antibiotics. The really good news is that our lab tests have showed that endolysins do not just eradicate staphylococcus aureus; they also inhibit their ability to promote cancer growth.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, July 2023

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 Sleep Alert !

Quality sleep promotes to depression and anxiety

The researchers said that chronic stress is a major risk factor for a number of mental health disorders, including depression and pathological anxiety, but high-quality sleep and coping strategies such as the ability to reframe a situation to see the positive side can help to prevent poor mental health when faced with negative or stressful experiences. The research studied data from over 600 participants during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 an extended stressful period of time. They aimed to test the theory that coping strategies supported positive mental health outcomes, which could be strengthened by high-quality sleep. This is the first study to investigate the ways in which positive coping strategies and sleep quality influence depression and anxiety when experiencing a real-world chronic stressor. Better sleep quality was associated with fewer symptoms of both depression and anxiety during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the importance of targeting both positive coping strategies and sleep quality when enduring periods of chronic stress. The team analyzed data in Daily Sleep and Well-being Survey where participants regularly self-reported their sleep quality and mental well-being during the pandemic. They also completed a baseline demographic survey to obtain information such as their age, gender and ethnicity. As well as collecting information on participants' sleep and mental well-being, the surveys also collected a wealth of additional information such as participants' alcohol consumption, their quarantine status and physical activity levels. Long time since high-quality sleep is associated with better healthwell-beingbeing outcomes, but wanted to know whether this would change if sleep and coping strategies were put under intense and prolonged periods of stress, as it was for so many during the pandemic. Sleep plays a hugely important role in the management of chronic stress and can sustain well-being over a long period of time, reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, July 2023

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Insulin Biology !

 Revealing the biology of insulin production

The discovery of insulin has saved the lives of millions of people with diabetes worldwide, but little is known about the first step of insulin synthesis. Researchers have uncovered part of this mystery. Examining messenger RNAs involved in the production of insulin in fruit flies, they found that a chemical tag on the mRNA is crucial to translating the insulin mRNA into the protein insulin. The alteration of this chemical tag can affect how much insulin is produced. An organism carries DNA, its genes in each cell of its bodies. Genes are blocks of information that get transcribed into proteins via another molecule called messenger RNAs. These mRNAs are photocopies of DNA leaving the original DNA untouched that ferry this protein information into the cytoplasm of cells, where protein is synthesized. The mRNAs are decorated with small molecules called "tags." These tags can modify how RNAs function and how proteins are produced. Studying insulin production in humans or mammals is difficult. In humans, the pancreas is situated behind the liver. It doesn't regenerate well, and it can't be sampled in live subjects. But in flies, their insulin cells are actually in their brains, function like neurons, and are physically accessible to researchers. In fruit flies, the researchers looked at a tag called RNA N-6 adenosine methylation, or m6A.To study the m6A tag, the researchers first identified the RNAs that have the tag. Then they labeled insulin cells with a fluorescent molecule, and used confocal microscopy to visualize how much insulin is produced by the insulin cell. They did in two conditions: first, they knocked out the m6A enzyme, responsible for decorating the mRNA with m6A tags, in insulin cells. Second, they removed the m6A tags by using CRISPR, a technology used to edit DNA. In both cases, the flies' ability to produce insulin was greatly reduced. Researcher found that this photocopy of the DNA for insulin, this mRNA, had a specific tag that, when it is present, a ton of the insulin hormone is made But without the signal, flies had much less insulin and developed hallmarks of diabetes. Low levels of chemical tags have been observed in people with Type 2 diabetes.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, July 2023

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Glympa TM
  Generic Name Empagliflozin & Linagliptin
  Strength 10/ 5 mg & 25/5 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Oral Antidiabetic Preparation
  Product Mirader TM  
Generic Name Mirabegron
Strength 25 mg
Dosage form Extended Release Tablet
Therapeutic Category Urological Preparation
  Product Sopilax TM
  Generic Name Sodium Picosulfate
Strength 10 mg
  Dosage form Tablet & Oral Solution
  Therapeutic Category Laxative

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