Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  22     ISSUE:  3  March    2024 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals PLC.





P G Dip. Business Management

Rubyeat Adnan


Mushfiqur Rahman




Dear Doctor:

Welcome to this edition of "e- SQUARE" !

Hope you are enjoying this online healthcare bulletin !

This issue features a variety of articles including-

 "Bad cholesterol", "Intussusception Alert !", "Diabetes Alert !", "Liver cancer !", "Hidden Fighters !", " Iron Mystery !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals PLC. as well.

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Editorial Team

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The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS PLC.

Bad Cholesterol !

                                      The liver immune system eats up 'bad cholesterol’

A new study reveals that immune cells in the liver react to high cholesterol levels and eat up excess cholesterol that can otherwise cause damage to arteries. The findings suggest that the response to the onset of atherosclerosis begins in the liver. Cholesterol is a type of fat that is essential for many functions in the body, such as making hormones and cell membranes. However, too much cholesterol in the blood can be harmful, as it can stick to the walls of the arteries and form plaques that narrow or block the blood flow. This results in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, the primary underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, and the leading cause of death worldwide. In the current study, researchers wanted to understand how different tissues in the body react to high levels of LDL, also called 'bad cholesterol', in the blood. To test this, they created a system where they could quickly increase the cholesterol in the blood of mice. Researchers found that the liver responded almost immediately and removed some of the excess cholesterol. However, it wasn't the typical liver cells that responded, but a type of immune cell called Kupffer cells that are known for recognising foreign or harmful substances and eating them up. The discovery made in mice was also validated in human tissue samples. It was surprised to see that the liver seems to be the first line of defence against excess cholesterol and that the Kupffer cells were the ones doing the job. This shows that the liver immune system is an active player in regulating cholesterol levels, and suggests that atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects multiple organs and not just the arteries. The researchers hope that by understanding how the liver and other tissues communicate with each other after being exposed to high cholesterol, they can find new ways to prevent or treat cardiovascular and liver diseases.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, March 2024 

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Intussusception Alert !

                             Common viruses trigger most cases of intussusception in children

Viral infections trigger more cases of intussusception, the common cause of bowel blockages in young children, than previously thought, according to a new study. The research found during the COVID-19 lockdowns hospital admissions for intussusception, a medical emergency involving obstruction of the intestine, among young children significantly decreased. For the study, 12 years of data was analysed. A total of 5,589 intussusception cases were recorded between January, 2010 and April, 2022. Of those, 3,179 were children under the age of two. During the lockdown periods, a decline in hospital admissions for intussusception among children under two by 62.7 per cent and 40.1 per cent, respectively. The rate of intussusception cases has now returned to normal levels. Scientist said the magnitude of the decline supported that common respiratory diseases such as colds, the flu and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were behind a significant proportion of intussusception cases. Reductions in intussusception hospital admissions were seen in all age groups, however most occurred in children less than two years of age. Intussusception is the leading cause of acute bowel obstruction in infants and young children and without prompt diagnosis and management, can be fatal. Countries with prolonged COVID-19 lockdowns and suppression strategies saw reductions in common respiratory viruses, which influenced the drop in intussusception admissions. The analysis found commons viruses play a larger role than previously recognised in triggering intussusception. When a new vaccine against common childhood respiratory viruses is introduced, that may find there are some unexpected benefits, like protecting more children from intussusception.

SOURCE: Science Daily, March 2024

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Diabetes Alert !

                                                                                   Too little sleep raises risk of type 2 diabetes 

Type 2 diabetes affects the body's ability to process sugar (glucose), hindering insulin absorption and resulting in high blood sugar levels. A report from 2020 showed that over 462 million people suffer from this disease. Over time, it can cause serious damage, particularly to nerves and blood vessels, and thus represents an escalating public health problem globally. Previous research has shown that repeated short daily rest increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, while healthy dietary habits such as regularly eating fruit and vegetables can reduce the risk. However, it has remained unclear whether people who sleep too little can reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by eating healthily. The researchers therefore used data from one of the largest population databases in the world, the UK Biobank, in which nearly half a million participants from the UK have been genetically mapped and responded to questions on health and lifestyle. They followed the participants for over ten years and found that a sleep duration of between three and five hours was linked to a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In contrast, healthy eating habits led to a lower risk of developing the disease, but even people who ate healthily but slept less than six hours a day were still at higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The results are the first to question whether a healthy diet can compensate for lack of sleep in terms of the risk of type 2 diabetes. They should not cause concern, but instead be seen as a reminder that sleep plays an important role in health. The effects of sleep deprivation vary between individuals, depending on aspects such as genetics and a person's actual need for sleep.

SOURCE: Science Daily, March 2024

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 Liver Cancer !

                                                                                    Maternal obesity may promote liver cancer

Obesity, which could reach 50% of the population in certain developed countries by 2030, is a major public health concern. It not only affects the health of those who suffer from it, but could also have serious consequences for their offspring. Scientists have studied the impact of maternal obesity on the risk of developing liver disease and liver cancer. The team discovered that this risk was indeed much higher in the offspring of mothers suffering from obesity. One of the main causes was the transmission of a disturbed intestinal microbiota from the mother, resulting in a chronic liver disease whose effects became apparent in adulthood. The scientific community suspects that maternal obesity disrupts the metabolic balance of the unborn child, and even increases the risk of childhood cancer and colorectal cancer. The scientists studied two groups of female mice: the first fed with a diet rich in fat and sugar similar to junk food which rapidly became obese. The second the control group was fed normally. All their offspring were fed with a normal diet and were not overweight. The only difference was therefore the maternal obesity of the first group. At 40 weeks, a senior age in mice, the liver health of the first group began to deteriorate. All the parameters of liver disease fat deposits, fibrosis, and inflammation were significantly higher in the offspring of mothers suffering from obesity. And these are the main risk factors for liver cancer in humans. To confirm whether the mice had a higher risk of developing liver cancer, the team injected two groups of these mice with an oncogenic product just after weaning. And indeed, the offspring of obese mothers had an 80% risk of developing cancer, compared with 20% for the control group. Obesity alters the composition and diversity of the mother's microbiota, which is passed on to the next generation and persists throughout life. As a result, the healthy microbiota naturally regains the upper hand, and the marker of liver disease dramatically decreased. The junk food diet encourages the proliferation of bad bacteria and reduces bacterial diversity. This altered microbiota, transmitted at birth, then leads to greater inflammation in the liver and, over time, generates fibrosis and steatosis which in turn increase the risk of developing liver cancer.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, March 2024

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Hidden Fighters !

                                                                         Scientists discover hidden army of lung flu fighters

Scientists have long thought of the fluid-filled sac around lungs merely as a cushion from external damage. Turns out, it also houses potent virus-eating cells that rush into the lungs during flu infections. Not to be confused with phages, which are viruses that infect bacteria, these cells are macrophages, immune cells produced in the body. The name macrophage means 'big eater. Anything that looks foreign, they take it up and destroy it. It was surprised to find in the lungs because nobody has seen this before that these cells go into the lung when there's an infection. This study shows it's not just what happens in the lung that matters, but also what's outside of the lung. Cell types not normally connected to the lung can have outsized impacts on lung disease and health. There are three main cavities in the body: one around the heart, the abdominal cavity, and the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs. Because it contains fluid, it prevents the lungs from collapsing. This research may change that perception. Initially, the researchers set out to understand the more general question of what types of cells are present in the lungs during flu infections. Scientist mined the data using an algorithm to predict cell types that change in the lungs during infections. Next, using a laser-based technique, the team tracked macrophages going into the lungs of mice, and observed what happened if took these cells out of the equation. Moving forward, the research team is hoping to determine which proteins "tell" the macrophages to move into the lungs. Once the protein signals have been identified, it may be possible to create drugs that boost either the number of macrophages, or their activity. The strategy of boosting human defenses to infection, rather than developing another antiviral, could offer people a flu treatment that would be more effective for much longer.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, March 2024

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Iron Mystery !

                                                                          Does iron accumulate in brain after concussions !

People who have headaches after experiencing concussions may also be more likely to have higher levels of iron in areas of the brain, which is a sign of injury to brain cells, according to a preliminary study released on March 5, 2024, that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's online. These results suggest that iron accumulation in the brain can be used as a biomarker for concussion and post-traumatic headache, which could potentially help us understand the underlying processes that occur with these conditions. The study involved 60 people who had post-traumatic headache due to mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. The injuries were due to a fall for 45% of the people, 30% were due to a motor vehicle accident and 12% were due to a fight. Other causes were the head hitting against or by an object and sports injuries. A total of 46% of the people had one mild traumatic brain injury in their lifetime, 17% had two, 16% had three and 16% had five or more mild traumatic brain injuries. The people with mild traumatic brain injuries were matched with 60 people who had not had concussions or post-traumatic headache. All the participants had brain scans to look at iron levels in various areas of the brain, using an indirect measure for iron burden. For those with mild traumatic brain injuries, the scans were taken an average of 25 days after the injury. The study found that compared to the people without concussion, those with a history of concussion and headaches had higher levels of iron accumulation in several areas of the brain, including the left occipital area, right cerebellum and right temporal lobe. For example, in the left occipital area, those with concussion and headaches had more iron accumulation than those with no concussion or headaches. Researchers also found that the more concussions people had over their lifetime and the more frequent their headaches were, the more likely they were to have higher levels of iron accumulation in certain areas of the brain. They also found that the more time that had passed since the concussion occurred, the more likely people were to have higher levels of iron accumulation in areas of the brain. This research may help us better understand how the brain responds and recovers from concussion.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, March 2024

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals PLC.

  Product Dulamet TM
  Generic Name Mometasone & Formoterol
  Strength Mometasone 100 mcg + Formoterol 5 mcg/puff
Mometasone 200 mcg + Formoterol 5 mcg/puff
  Dosage form Metered Dose Inhaler
  Therapeutic Category Inhaled corticosteroid + Beta-2 agonist
  Product Vertina-DXTM
Generic Name

Doxylamine Succinate + Pyridoxine Hydrochloride


20 mg + 20 mg

Dosage form Extended Release Tablet
Therapeutic Category Antiemetic + Antinauseant
  Product DarborenTM
Generic Name Darbepoetin alfa 
Strength 25 mcg/0.42 ml, 40 mcg/0.40 ml &
60 mcg/0.30 ml
  Dosage form Pre-filled Syringe (IV/Subcutaneous Injection)
Therapeutic Category Erythropoietin Products

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