Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  18     ISSUE:  10    October  2020 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management







Dear Doctor,

Welcome to our healthcare bulletin 'e-SQUARE' !

In this issue, we focused on some interesting features like -

"Protein Paradox !", "Periodontal Disease !", "Long-term Memory !",  "Nerve Sense Autism !",  "Green Light Therapy !", "High Flavanol Diet !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.


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Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Protein Paradox !

'Protein paradox' and suggest way to exploit cancer weakness

Every cell in our body constantly divides to form new cells. This happens without us even thinking about it. However, every single time a cell divides, a complicated process has to unfold just the right way for our cells to avoid sickness and death. Researcher have discovered how MCM (Minichromosome maintenance) proteins ensure that DNA replication proceeds at the right pace and thus avoids unnecessary molecular collisions, which could damage their genomes. Even more importantly, the new findings explain how mother cells manage to instruct their daughters to keep the pace of their DNA replication within physiological limits. In simple terms, the new findings discovered nothing less than how an essential skill required for life continuation is preserved in cell's memory. To explain the new finding by an analogy, researchers found that the excess of young MCM proteins is used by cells to slow down the DNA replication by adding "speed bumps" ahead of their older siblings, that 'drive' the DNA replication engine. And while it may seem impractical to slow down this process, the body has a very good reason to do so. These new results show that most of MCM proteins work a bit like speed bumps on a busy street. If they were not there, the traffic would go too fast and accidents could easily happen. Study shows that the same thing happens in the cell: If the newly born MCM proteins cannot be passed by other cells on to their daughters, DNA is replicated too quickly, and this can be fatal for the cell. The researchers suggest that their findings could potentially help exploit the weaknesses of cancer cells. Researcher also found that the young MCM proteins require a 'molecular babysitter' (a protein called MCMBP), which protects them and escorts them to DNA, where they can be useful.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, October 2020

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Periodontal Disease !

Stem cell response to inflammation may reverse periodontal disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease. If left unchecked, periodontal disease can destroy the jawbone and lead to tooth loss. The disease is also associated with higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The current treatment for periodontal disease involves opening the infected gum flaps and adding bone grafts to strengthen the teeth. Researcher have discovered that a specific type of molecule may stimulate stem cells to regenerate, reversing the inflammation caused by periodontal disease. This finding could lead to the development of new therapeutics to treat a variety of systemic diseases that are characterized by inflammation in the body. Researcher & their team removed stem cells from previously extracted wisdom teeth and placed the stem cells onto petri dishes. The researchers then created a simulated inflammatory periodontal disease environment in the petri dishes. Next, they added two specific types of synthetic molecules called Maresin-1 and Resolvin-E1, both specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators from omega-3 fatty acids. The scientists found that Mar1 and RvE1 stimulated the stem cells to regenerate even under the inflammatory conditions. Both Maresin-1 and Resolvin-1 reprogrammed the cellular phenotype of the human stem cells, showing that even in response to inflammation, it is possible to boost capacity of the stem cells so they can become regenerative, said by lead researcher. This finding is important because it allows scientists to identify the specific protein pathways involved in inflammation. Those same protein pathways are consistent across many systemic diseases, including periodontal disease, diabetes, heart disease, dementia, and obesity.

SOURCE:  Science Daily News, October 2020                                           

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Long-term Memory !

Long-term memory controlled by protein synthesis in inhibitory cells

Researcher have discovered that during memory consolidation, there are at least two distinct processes taking place in two different brain networks the excitatory and inhibitory networks. The excitatory neurons are involved in creating a memory trace, and the inhibitory neurons block out background noise and allow long-term learning to take place. The research, which answers a long-standing question about which neuronal subtypes are involved in memory consolidation, has potential implications for novel targets for medication for disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and autism, which involve altered memory processes. To identify which neuronal networks are essential in memory consolidation, the researchers used transgenic mice to manipulate a particular molecular pathway, eIF2α, in specific types of neurons. This pathway had already been shown to play a key role in controlling the formation of long-term memories and regulating protein synthesis in neurons. Moreover, earlier research had identified eIF2α as pivotal for both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Protein synthesis via eIF2α in excitatory neurons of the hippocampus was sufficient to enhance memory formation and modification of synapses, the sites of communication between neurons also found that stimulation of protein synthesis via eIF2α in a specific class of inhibitory neurons, somatostatin interneurons, was also sufficient to augment long-term memory by tuning the plasticity of neuronal connections. These new findings identify protein synthesis in inhibitory neurons, and specifically somatostatin cells, as a novel target for possible therapeutic interventions in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. Researcher hope that this will help in the design of both preventative and post-diagnosis treatments for those who suffer from disorders involving memory deficits.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, October 2020

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Nerve Sense Autism !

Nerves that sense 'touch' may play role in autism

Autism is considered a disorder of the brain. But a new study suggests that the peripheral nervous system, the nerves that control our sense of touch, pain and other sensations, may play a role as well. For some people, even a light touch can feel unbearable while others may not even notice a cut on their foot. If larger studies can confirm these results, it is possible that further insight into the peripheral nervous system could help us understand how this disorder develops and potentially light the way for treating these distressing sensory symptoms that most people with autism experience. The people with autism completed questionnaires on their sensory symptoms. All of the participants had tests of their sensory nerves, including skin biopsies to look for damage to the small fibers in their nerves. In another test, heat pulses were applied to the skin. Researchers looked at the electrical signals produced by the nerves to see how they respond to the heat. On the skin biopsy test, 53% of the people with autism had reduced nerve fiber density, while all of the people in the control group had levels in the normal range. People who had reduced nerve fiber density also were more likely to report feeling pain from the heat stimulus at a higher temperature than the control group. The study also found that the response to touch in people with autism differed according to whether or not they had nerve fiber damage. People who had normal nerves were more likely to say they disliked being touched and were uncomfortable with some textures, while people with nerve fiber damage were more likely to say they preferred going barefoot and could be unaware that they had gotten scratched or bruised. Beyond its small size, another limitation of the study is that all of the participants with autism were male so the results may not apply to everyone with autism.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, October 2020

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Green Light Therapy !
Treat Migraine to Green light therapy

New research from the University of Arizona Health Sciences found that people who suffer from migraine may benefit from green light therapy, which was shown to reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches and improve patient quality of life. Researchers said that it is the first clinical study to evaluate green light exposure as a potential preventive therapy for patients with migraine. Green light exposure reduced the number of headache days per month by an average of about 60%. A majority of study participants 86% of episodic migraine patients and 63% of chronic migraine patients -- reported a more than 50% reduction in headache days per month. Researcher said that the overall average benefit was statistically significant. Most of the people were extremely happy. But when it came to the end of the study, we offered them the option to keep the light, and 28 out of the 29 decided to keep the light. The use of a nonpharmacological therapy such as green light can be of tremendous help to a variety of patients that either do not want to be on medications or do not respond to them. The beauty of this approach is the lack of associated side effects. Using a numeric pain scale of 0 to 10, participants noted that green light exposure resulted in a 60% reduction in pain, from 8 to 3.2. Green light therapy also shortened the duration of headaches, and it improved participants' ability to fall and stay asleep, perform chores, exercise, and work.

SOURCE: Science Daily News , October 2020

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High Flavanol Diet !

High flavanol diet may lead to lower blood pressure

According to new study, People who consume a diet including flavanol-rich foods and drinks, including tea, apples and berries, could lead to lower blood pressure. In contrast to most other studies investigating links between nutrition and health, the researchers did not rely on study participants reporting their diet, but instead measured flavanol intake objectively using nutritional biomarkers indicators of dietary intake, metabolism or nutritional status that are present in our blood. The difference in blood pressure between those with the lowest 10% of flavanol intake and those with the highest 10% of intake was between 2 and 4 mmHg. This is comparable to meaningful changes in blood pressure observed in those following a Mediterranean diet or Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Notably, the effect was more pronounced in participants with hypertension. Previous studies of large populations have always relied on self-reported data to draw conclusions, but this is the first epidemiological study of this scale to objectively investigate the association between a specific bioactive compound and health. This research confirms the results from previous dietary intervention studies and shows that the same results can be achieved with a habitual diet rich in flavanols. The methodology of the study is of equal importance. This is one of the largest ever studies to use nutritional biomarkers to investigate bioactive compounds. Using nutritional biomarkers to estimate intake of bioactive food compounds has long been seen as the gold standard for research, as it allows intake to be measured objectively. The development, validation and application of the biomarker was only possible because of the long-term commitment of all collaborators. In contrast to self-reported dietary data, nutritional biomarkers can address the huge variability in food composition. This study adds key insights to a growing body of evidence supporting the benefits of dietary flavanols in health and nutrition.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, October 2020

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product RevoferTM
  Generic Name Ferric Carboxymaltose
  Strength 500 mg & 750 mg
  Dosage form Injection
  Therapeutic Category Hematinic
  Product FamotackPFS
Generic Name

Famotidine USP


40 mg/5ml

Dosage form Powder for suspension
Therapeutic Category Antiulcerant (H2 antagonist)
Product G-CalboTM
  Generic Name Algae Calcium + Vitamin D3
Strength Algae Calcium 500 mg + Vitamin D3 200 IU
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Calcium

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