Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  17     ISSUE:  9    September  2019 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Rubyeat Adnan




Dear Doctor:

Hope you are well !

Welcome to our online publication  'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like-

"Brain Anatomy !", "Intestinal Regeneration !", "Heart Toxicity !", "Hot Yoga !", "Paracetamol in Pregnancy !", "Enteroviral Infection !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send us your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Brain Anatomy !

                                                         Brain anatomy changes with maturation to adolescence

Researchers piece together a road map of typical brain development in children during a critical window of maturation. The study shows how a "wave of brain maturation" directly underlies important social and behavioral changes children develop during the transition from childhood to adolescence. A group of researchers at CHLA examined anatomical and behavioral changes during the finite window of neurological development in a group of 9-12 year old children. A more detailed understanding of typical brain development could give scientists and clinicians a better framework to help care for children who may be developing atypically or facing developmental challenges. Using imaging and measuring brain metabolites, the group observed to as a "wave of maturation" sweeping through the brain. White matter tracts the pathways in the brain that transmit information showed increasing maturation with age from the back to the front of the brain. The frontal lobes mediate executive function major planning of complex decisions and actions. But perhaps less expected is that so many of these changes begin to occur so early on. The findings in the study show that this maturation is largely beginning during years 9-12. Children are undergoing rapid, neurological maturity at the same time that they are facing difficult social and academic decisions. As a child grows, he or she becomes more able to control impulses and process complex concepts. In support of this observation the group discovered increasing scores on tasks that measured these skills. Dynamic changes are happening here and this gives us a real opportunity for intervention & it help to shape of the kids as they grow.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2019

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Intestinal Regeneration !

    Adult fly intestine could help understand intestinal regeneration

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to diverse types of environmental stresses such as bacteria and toxins, but the mechanisms by which epithelial cells sense stress are not well understood. Researcher used the adult fly intestine, which is remarkably like a human intestine, to understand how IECs sense stress or damage, defend themselves and promote epithelial regeneration. Stress sensing pathways are activated upon a variety of stresses in fly IECs, but how these pathways are activated and how they promote IEC resilience and intestinal regeneration are not known. The researchers found that NADPH Oxidase (Nox) in IECs produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon stress, but it wasn't fully understood how ROS promote intestinal regeneration. The researchers are still unclear how stress is sensed by intestinal epithelial cells but believe it is possible that Nox senses stress. The study also found damage activates stress sensing pathways in fly IECs but how these pathways effect IEC resilience and intestinal repair is not fully clear. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in tissue regeneration and even in neuronal axon regeneration. It is also relevant for diseases that develop from the loss of epithelial integrity such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which increases risk for colorectal cancer. Understanding how tissues sense stress and promote their resilience and repair will provide novel therapeutic strategies.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2019

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Heart Toxicity !

                                                 Heart toxicity caused by diabetes drugs solved

Like catching two fish with one worm, treating two problems with a single drug is efficient, but exceedingly difficult. In particular, for new diabetes medications, in which one drug aims to tackle two major complications of diabetes the excess of both lipids and glucose in the blood the therapeutic benefits, while great, frequently are accompanied by dangerous toxic effects to the heart. Why and how these drugs, known as dual PPARα/γ agonists cause heart dysfunction in diabetes patients has been unclear. Researcher show for the first time that dual PPARα/γ diabetes drugs have a profound toxic effect on the generation and function of mitochondria, the tiny energy factories that power cells. Researcher found that the combined activation of PPARα and PPARγ receptors by a single agonist drug, tesaglitazar, blocked the activity of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production, including a protein known as SIRT1. The popular diabetes drugs known as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (the latter marketed as Avandia), bind to PPARγ receptors. Because these drugs given alone have been questioned for cardiac toxicity, the idea emerged for dual PPARα/γ activation by a single drug the one piece of bait that in theory successfully lures the two fish the combined lipid- and glucose-lowering effects of PPARα/γ coactivation. The researchers then repeated their experiment, this time treating diabetic mice with tesaglitazar in combination with resveratrol, which serves as an activator of SIRT1. Mice treated with the combination of the two drugs had reduced heart toxicity, relative to tesaglitazar-only therapy, and their heart cells exhibited normal mitochondrial function.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2019

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Hot Yoga !

                                            Temperature up, blood pressures down in hot yoga study

Taking hot yoga classes lowered blood pressure in a small study of adults with elevated or stage 1 hypertension, according to preliminary research. While there is evidence of regular, room-temperature yoga's positive effect on blood pressure, little is known about hot yoga's potential impact on blood pressure, according to the study researchers. Hot yoga is a modern practice, typically offered in a hot, humid atmosphere, with room temperatures around 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Some believe the practice of hot yoga replicates the heat and humidity of India, where yoga originated, while others look at the excessive sweating as a way to rid the body of impurities. Researchers randomly assigned five participants to take 12 weeks of three-times-weekly hour-long hot yoga classes and they assigned the other five to a control group of no yoga classes. They compared average blood pressures of the two groups after the 12 weeks. The researchers looked at average 24-hour blood pressure readings, as well as perceived stress and vascular function of participants in both groups. At 12 weeks, they found, Systolic blood pressure dropped from an average 126 mmHg at the study's start to 121 mmHg after 12 weeks of hot yoga. Average diastolic pressure also decreased from 82 mmHg to 79 mmHg in the hot yoga group. Average blood pressure did not change among the five adults in the control group, those who did not take hot yoga classes. Perceived stress levels fell among those in the hot yoga group but not in the non-yoga group. While waking systolic and diastolic pressures fell in the hot yoga group, blood pressure readings taken during sleep did not change. There were no changes in vascular function in either group.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2019

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Paracetamol in Pregnancy !
Childhood behavior linked to taking paracetamol in pregnancy

The research examined whether there were any effects of taking paracetamol in mid-pregnancy and the behavior of the offspring between the ages of 6 month and 11 years, with memory and IQ tested up until the age of 17. Paracetamol is commonly used to relieve pain during pregnancy and is recommended as the treatment of choice by the NHS. They found an association between paracetamol intake and hyperactivity and attention problems as well as with other difficult behaviors with young children that were not accounted for by the reasons why the medication was taken or social factors. However, this was no longer the case by the time the children reached the end of primary school. Boys appeared to be more susceptible than girls to the possible behavioral effects of the drug. Lead researcher said, add to a series of results concerning evidence of the possible adverse effects of taking paracetamol during pregnancy such as issues with asthma or behavior in the offspring. It reinforces the advice that women should be cautious when taking medication during pregnancy and to seek medical advice where necessary.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2019

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Enteroviral Infection !

                              Chronic enteroviral infection modifies broadly pancreatic cellular functions

Enteroviral infections are common viral infections with usually rather few symptoms and also believed to be linked to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreatic insulin-producing beta-cells are destroyed. A new study supports the link between enteroviral infections and type 1 diabetes. The goal of the new study was to understand the mechanisms that control the development of chronic enteroviral infection in the pancreas. The study also aimed at creating a comprehensive picture on the alterations caused by enteroviral infection that could possibly have adverse health effects. In the study, cutting-edge proteomic methods were utilised to measure how the infection influences the expression and secretion of thousands of different proteins in the cellular models of chronic pancreatic enteroviral infection. Having persisted for almost a year, the chronic enteroviral infections modified the cellular expression of numerous proteins that are key to cellular functions, such as proteins regulating energy metabolism. The infections also caused alterations in the secretion of several proteins. Interestingly, chronic infections that had been developed by using two different virus strains triggered partly very different responses. The study revealed several mechanisms through which chronic enteroviral infections can impact pancreatic functioning and possibly the development of type 1 diabetes.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2019

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Calboral DXTM
  Generic Name Coral Calcium +Vitamin D
Strength 1200 mg+400 IU
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Calcium
  Product CaberolTM
Generic Name Cabergoline
Strength 0.5 mg
Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Antihyperprolactenemia
  Product D-BalanceTM
  Generic Name Cholecalciferol
  Strength 40000 IU
  Dosage form Licap
  Therapeutic Category Vitamin

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