Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  19     ISSUE:  9    September  2021 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management









Dear Doctor,

Hope you are well !

Welcome to our online publication  'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like-

"Gut Bacteria !", "Coffee & Health  !", "Walnuts & Bad Cholesterol !", "Pancreatic Organoids !", "BMI & Depression !", "Asthma Species !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send us your feedback !

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Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Gut Bacteria !

                                                Gut bacteria influence brain development

Extremely premature infants are at a high risk for brain damage. Researchers have now found possible targets for the early treatment of such damage outside the brain. Bacteria in the gut of premature infants may play a key role. The research team found that the overgrowth of the gastrointestinal tract with the bacterium Klebsiella is associated with an increased presence of certain immune cells and the development of neurological damage in premature babies. The early development of the gut, the brain and the immune system are closely interrelated. Researchers refer to this as the gut-immune-brain axis. Bacteria in the gut cooperate with the immune system, which in turn monitors gut microbes and develops appropriate responses to them. In addition, the gut is in contact with the brain via the vagus nerve as well as via the immune system. Researchers investigated and found that gut-immune-brain axis plays important role in the brain development of extreme preterm infants. The microorganisms of the gut microbiome which is a vital collection of hundreds of species of bacteria, fungi, viruses and other microbes are in equilibrium in healthy people. However, especially in premature babies, whose immune system and microbiome have not been able to develop fully, shifts are quite likely to occur. These shifts may result in negative effects on the brain. In fact researchers have been able to identify certain patterns in the microbiome and immune response that are clearly linked to the progression and severity of brain injury. They were able to track down these patterns because, for a very specific group of newborns, for the first time it has been explored in detail how the gut microbiome, the immune system and the brain develop and how they interact in this process.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2021

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Coffee & Health !

    Light-to-moderate coffee drinking associated with health benefits

Up to three cups of coffee per day is associated with a lower risk of stroke and fatal heart disease, according to new research. Though coffee is among the most consumed beverages in the world, little is known about the long-term impact of regular consumption on cardiovascular health. The researchers estimated the association of daily coffee consumption with incident outcomes over a median follow-up of 11 years using multivariable models. The analyses were adjusted for factors that could influence the relationship including age, sex, weight, height, smoking status, physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol level, socioeconomic status, and usual intake of alcohol, meat, tea, fruit and vegetables. Compared to non-coffee drinkers, light-to-moderate consumption was associated with a 12% lower risk of all-cause death, 17% lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease and 21% lower risk of incident stroke. The imaging analysis indicated that compared with participants who did not drink coffee regularly, daily consumers had healthier sized and better functioning hearts. This was consistent with reversing the detrimental effects of ageing on the heart. These findings suggest that coffee consumption of up to 3 cups per day is associated with favorable cardiovascular outcomes.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2021

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Walnuts & Bad Cholesterol !

                                               Eating walnuts daily lowers bad cholesterol and may reduce cardiovascular disease

Walnuts are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid), which have been shown to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. Healthy older adults who ate a handful of walnuts (about cup) a day for two years modestly lowered their level of low-density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol levels. Consuming walnuts daily also reduced the number of LDL particles, a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Walnuts lower LDL-cholesterol levels as well as they improve the quality of LDL particles. Research has shown that small, dense LDL particles are more often associated with atherosclerosis, the plaque or fatty deposits that build up in the arteries. Their study goes beyond LDL cholesterol levels to get a complete picture of all of the lipoproteins and the impact of eating walnuts daily on their potential to improve cardiovascular risk. Researchers evaluated if regular walnut consumption, regardless of a person's diet or where they live, has beneficial effects on lipoproteins. Eating a handful of walnuts every day is a simple way to promote cardiovascular health. Many people are worried about unwanted weight gain when they include nuts in their diet. This study found that the healthy fats in walnuts did not cause participants to gain weight. According to the American Heart Association, walnuts are especially high in omega-3 fatty acids, the same heart-healthy fat found in oily fish. A serving size is a small handful or 1.5 ounces of whole nuts or 2 tablespoons of nut butter.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2021

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Pancreatic Organoids !

                                            Pancreatic 'organoids' that mimic the real thing

MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) engineers, in collaboration with scientists at Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, have developed a new way to grow tiny replicas of the pancreas, using either healthy or cancerous pancreatic cells. Their new models could help researchers develop and test potential drugs for pancreatic cancer, which is currently one of the most difficult types of cancer to treat. Using a specialized gel that mimics the extracellular environment surrounding the pancreas, the researchers were able to grow pancreatic "organoids," allowing them to study the important interactions between pancreatic tumors and their environment. Unlike some of the gels now used to grow tissue, the new MIT gel is completely synthetic, easy to assemble and can be produced with a consistent composition every time. The researchers have also shown that their new gel can be used to grow other types of tissue, including intestinal and endometrial tissue. Traditionally, labs have used commercially available tissue-derived gel to grow organoids in a lab dish. However, as the most widely used commercial gel is a complex mixture of proteins, proteoglycans, and growth factors derived from a tumor grown in mice, it is variable from lot to lot and has undesirable components present. One key feature is the presence of molecules called peptide ligands, which interact with cell surface proteins called integrins. The sticky binding between ligands and integrins allows cells to adhere to the gel and form organoids. The researchers found that incorporating small synthetic peptides derived from fibronectin and collagen in their gels allowed them to grow a variety of epithelial tissues, including intestinal tissue. They showed that supportive cells called stromal cells, along with immune cells, can also thrive in this environment.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2021

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BMI & Depression !
High BMI causes depression

A largescale new study provides further evidence that being overweight causes depression and lowers wellbeing and indicates both social and physical factors may play a role in the effect. Obesity is a global health challenge. While the dangers of being obese on physical health is well known, researchers are now discovering that being overweight can also have a significant impact on mental health. The new study, published in Human Molecular Genetics, sought to investigate why a body of evidence now indicates that higher BMI causes depression. The team used genetic analysis, known as Mendelian Randomisation, to examine whether the causal link is the result of psychosocial pathways, such as societal influences and social stigma, or physical pathways, such as metabolic conditions linked to higher BMI. Such conditions include high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To examine which pathways may be active in causing depression in people with higher BMI, the team also interrogated two sets of previously discovered genetic variants. One set of genes makes people fatter, yet metabolically healthier, meaning they were less likely to develop conditions linked to higher BMI, such as high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. The second set of genes analyzed make people fatter and metabolically unhealthy, or more prone to such conditions. The team found little difference between the two sets of genetic variants, indicating that both physical and social factors play a role in higher rates of depression and poorer wellbeing. Understanding whether physical or social factors are responsible for this relationship can help inform effective strategies to improve mental health and wellbeing. This suggests that both physical health and social factors, such as social stigma, both play a role in the relationship between obesity and depression.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2021

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Asthma Species !

                              Severe asthma species identified

The termed asthma is an umbrella word for multiple diseases with common symptoms. Asthma has been broadly classified as two major sets of symptoms: T helper cell high (Th2-high) and T helper cell low (non-Th2). Th2-high is associated with early-childhood allergies to common pollutants such as pet dander, tree pollens, or mold. In contrast, non-TH2 is not related to an allergic response. The non-Th2 type, marked explicitly by being non-allergy-related, is far less understood than the TH-2 type and could transform into severe or difficult to treat type. Asthma afflicts more than 300 million people worldwide. The most severe manifestation, known as non-Th2, or non-atopic childhood asthma, represents the majority of the cases, greater than 85%, particularly in low-income countries. Yet, whether non-Th2 is a distinct disease (or endotype) or simply a unique set of symptoms (or phenotype) remains unknown. Non-Th2 asthma is associated with very poor prognosis in children and great, life-long suffering due to the absence of effective therapies. There is an urgent need to better understand its mechanistic origin to enable early diagnosis and to stop the progression of the disease before it becomes severe. Studies show that nearly 50% of the children whose asthma is poorly controlled are expected to emerge as severe adult cases. Yet, a one-size-fits-all treatment approach, currently the norm for asthma, is ineffective. The primary reason for lack of therapeutic and preventive measures is that no etiologic, or causal, driver has ever been identified for the non-Th2 asthma. Now, for the first time, an epidemiological study has shown that not only is non-Th2 a distinct disease, its likely inducer is early childhood exposure to airborne Benzo[a]pyrene, a byproduct of fossil fuel combustion. This study is the first to demonstrate air pollution as a driver of the most challenging type of asthma, the severe subtype which is non-responsive to current therapies.

SOURCE: ScienceDaily News, September 2021

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product DarborenTM
  Generic Name Darbepoetin Alfa
Strength 20 mcg,40 mcg & 60 mcg
  Dosage form Prefilled Syringe
  Therapeutic Category Hematinic
  Product DulametTM
Generic Name Mometasone Furoate +Formoterol Fumarate
Strength 100 mcg+5 mcg & 200 mcg+5 mcg
Dosage form MDI
Therapeutic Category Antiasthma
  Product BolardiTM
  Generic Name Saccharomyces boulardii
  Strength 250 mg & 500 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Antibiotic Associated Illness

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