Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  21     ISSUE:  9    September  2023 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management



Moshfiqur Rahman




Dear Doctor,

Hope you are well !

Welcome to our online publication  'e-SQUARE' !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like-

"Promising Approach !", "Traumatic Brain Injury !", "Allergies & Asthma ! ", "New Marker !", "Allergy Biomarker !", "Sleep-wake Therapy !".

In our regular feature, we have some products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

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Editorial Team

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The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

Promising Approach !

Implantable device could enable injection-free control of diabetes

One promising approach to treating Type 1 diabetes is implanting pancreatic islet cells that can produce insulin when needed, which can free patients from giving themselves frequent insulin injections. However, one major obstacle to this approach is that once the cells are implanted, they eventually run out of oxygen and stop producing insulin. To overcome that hurdle, MIT engineers have designed a new implantable device that not only carries hundreds of thousands of insulin-producing islet cells, but also has its own on-board oxygen factory, which generates oxygen by splitting water vapor found in the body. The researchers showed that when implanted into diabetic mice, this device could keep the mice's blood glucose levels stable for at least a month. The researchers now hope to create a larger version of the device, about the size of a stick of chewing gum, that could eventually be tested in people with Type 1 diabetes. A better alternative would be to transplant cells that produce insulin whenever they detect surges in the patient's blood glucose levels. Some diabetes patients have received transplanted islet cells from human cadavers, which can achieve long-term control of diabetes; however, these patients have to take immunosuppressive drugs to prevent their body from rejecting the implanted cells. More recently, researchers have shown similar success with islet cells derived from stem cells, but patients who receive those cells also need to take immunosuppressive drugs. This approach could also be used to deliver cells that produce other types of therapeutic proteins that need to be given over long periods of time. In this study, the researchers showed that the device could also keep alive cells that produce erythropoietin, a protein that stimulates red blood cell production. The researchers now plan to adapt the device for testing in larger animals and eventually humans. For human use, they hope to develop an implant that would be about the size of a stick of chewing gum. They also plan to test whether the device can remain in the body for longer periods of time.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, September, 2023

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Traumatic Brain Injury !

  Concussions early in life tied to late life cognitive decline

A study of twins shows that having a concussion early in life is tied to having lower scores on tests of thinking and memory skills decades later as well as having more rapid decline in those scores than twins who did not have a concussion, or traumatic brain injury (TBI). These findings indicate that even people with traumatic brain injuries in earlier life who appear to have fully recovered from them may still be at increased risk of cognitive problems and dementia later in life. The study involved 8,662 men. The participants took a test of thinking skills at the start of the study when they were an average age of 67 and then again up to three more times over 12 years. A total of 25% of the participants had experienced a concussion in their life. Twins who had experienced a concussion were more likely to have lower test scores at age 70, especially if they had a concussion where they lost consciousness or were older than 24 when they had their concussion. Those twins with traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness, more than one traumatic brain injury and who had their injuries after age 24 were more likely to have faster cognitive decline than those with no history of traumatic brain injury. These results took into account other factors that could affect thinking skills, such as high blood pressure, alcohol use, smoking status and education. Although these effect sizes are modest, the contribution of TBI on late life cognition, in addition to numerous other factors with a detrimental effect on cognition, may be enough to trigger an evaluation for cognitive impairment. These results may help us identify people who may benefit from early interventions that may slow cognitive decline or potentially delay or prevent dementia. A limitation of the study was that traumatic brain injuries were reported by the participants, so not all injuries may have been remembered or reported accurately.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, September 2023

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Allergies & Asthma !

                                            Receptor protects against allergies, asthma

The scientists found that the receptor, dectin-1, recognizes a protein found in house dust mites, cockroaches, shellfish and other invertebrates, and responds by suppressing immune reactions to these common triggers of allergy and asthma. This protective mechanism is dramatically impaired in people who have asthma or chronic sinusitis due to dust-mite sensitivity. Everyone is exposed to these substances, yet most don't have allergic responses to them.The discovery also hints that while dectin-1 protects against dust-mite and other invertebrate-related allergic responses, there may be additional, undiscovered receptors that suppress allergic responses to pollens and other airborne and dietary allergens. Dectin-1 previously has been studied as a receptor that recognizes structures on fungi and other microbes and triggers immune responses to them. There have even been suggestions that dectin-1 helps trigger allergic responses to dust mites. The lead researcher found to their surprise that the airways of these dectin-1-deficient mice were more prone to inflammation after exposure to dust mites compared to otherwise identical mice whose airway cells expressed dectin-1 normally. Blocking dectin-1 with antibodies had the same allergy-promoting effect. Thus, dectin-1 protects against dust-mite allergies rather than promoting them. The scientists determined that dectin-1, in addition to its fungus- and other pathogen-detecting duties, directly recognizes a protein called tropomyosin that is found in house dust mites and other invertebrates. Tropomyosin has previously been implicated as a possible trigger for asthma and shrimp allergies. The experiments indicated that when dectin-1 recognizes tropomyosin in house dust mites, shrimp or other common allergy-triggering species it suppresses airway cells' production of an immune molecule, IL-33, which otherwise would promote an allergic response by immune cells. Underscoring the relevance to humans, nasal and bronchial cells from people who suffer from asthma or chronic rhinosinusitis (nasal congestion/sniffles) due to dust-mite sensitivity, and found that on average these cells had a markedly lower expression of the dectin-1 gene. The lead researcher suggest that people who have sufficient dectin-1 in the cells that line their airways won't experience an allergic response when exposed to airborne dust mites or related allergens but people with a defect in dectin-1 expression will lack this protection. The findings point to the possibility of boosting dectin-1 levels, or otherwise restoring its protective effect, as a new therapeutic strategy against asthma and allergies that are related to dust mites, shrimp or other invertebrate triggers.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, September 2023

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New Marker !

                                            New blood marker can identify Parkinson diseases

Researchers are publishing their findings that the marker in question is called DOPA decarboxylase (DCC). In the current study, DCC was found to be elevated in individuals with Parkinson's disease as well as in people with other diseases that result in dopamine deficiency in the brain. However, the marker was normal in other brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The researchers even noticed that DCC was elevated in individuals with Parkinson's many years before they developed any symptoms. Researchers have used advanced techniques to measure thousands of proteins simultaneously in a small amount of sample. They conducted this in 428 individuals to identify biomarkers that can indicate whether a patient with motor disturbances or cognitive difficulties has damage to the dopamine system in the brain. Researchers found that if a patient has a disorder in the dopamine system, the levels of the biomarker DDC increase, regardless of where they are in the course of the disease. An important discovery is that this biomarker can be measured in blood, where it is significantly increased, especially in Parkinson's disease. The researchers' findings were verified in an additional group of 152 individuals & demonstrated that the new biomarker is also significantly increased in blood by analyzing blood plasma samples from 174 individuals. Damage to the dopamine system in the brain can also be detected through PET camera examinations. However, this is a very costly and complicated method that is only available at specialized memory clinics. Since the symptoms of various neurodegenerative brain diseases resemble each other, there is a significant risk of misdiagnosis and thus improper treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to find safer diagnostic tools and methods. Moreover, It believe that in the future, different brain diseases will be treated even before the symptoms become apparent, and blood markers will be essential in identifying the right individuals in a simple and cost-effective manner.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, September, 2023

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Allergy Biomarker !
Genetic biomarker may predict severity of food allergy

Researchers reported for the first time that a genetic biomarker may be able to help predict the severity of food allergy reactions. Currently there is no reliable or readily available clinical biomarker that accurately distinguishes patients with food allergies who are at risk for severe life-threatening reactions versus more mild symptoms. Researchers found that the presence of an enzyme isoform called α-tryptase, which is encoded by the TPSAB1 gene, correlates with increased prevalence of anaphylaxis or severe reaction to food as compared to subjects without any α-tryptase. Determining whether or not a patient with food allergies has α-tryptase can easily be done in clinical practice using a commercially available test to perform genetic sequencing from cheek swabs. If the biomarker is detected, this may help us understand that the child is at a higher risk for a severe reaction or anaphylaxis from their food allergy and should use their epinephrine auto-injector if exposed to the allergen. Their findings also open the door to developing an entirely new treatment strategy for food allergies that would target or block α-tryptase. This is an exciting first step and more research is needed. Tryptase is found mainly in mast cells, which are white blood cells that are part of the immune system. Mast cells become activated during allergic reactions. Increased TPSAB1 copy number which leads to increased α-tryptase is already known to be associated with severe reactions in adults with Hymenoptera venom allergy (or anaphylaxis following a bee sting). The study included 119 participants who underwent TPSAB1 genotyping, 82 from an observational food allergy cohort at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and 37 from a cohort of children who reacted to peanut oral food challenge at Lurie Children's. Researchers need to validate preliminary findings in a much larger study, but these initial results are promising.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, September 2023

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Sleep-wake Therapy !

                             Sleep-wake therapy gives new hope for teens with depression

Promoting healthy sleep in teen night owls brings adolescents' biology and school demands in alignment. School systems aren't built for kids who fall asleep and wake up late, the so-called "night owls," which may help explain why this group of teens is more prone to depression. Now, researchers have found a way to help these kids adjust to their natural sleep-cycle rhythms while still fulfilling their school responsibilities. The findings are a welcome sign for adolescents with depression, who are more likely than most to report staying up late. The key to success with the current intervention was teaching the night owls to structure their lives so they could sleep as late as possible, while gently training their bodies to fall asleep a little earlier. At the beginning of the study, all of the teens scored at least 40 on the Children's Depression Rating Scale, a level that indicates clinically significant depression. A score of 28 or lower indicates remission. Six months after the treatment, the intervention group's average score had fallen to 21.67, compared to 32.5 for the group that received the healthy lifestyle intervention. A larger study has since been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, and it will be open for enrollment to 200 teens in the Bay Area this fall. About 3 million adolescents have at least one major depressive episode in a given year, and about 40% don't respond to treatment. Teens whose natural tendencies are to fall asleep later and wake up later are at higher risk for recurrent depression, more severe depression, suicidality and poor antidepressant response, research shows.

SOURCE: Science Daily News, September, 2023

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product AntiscarTM
  Generic Name Extractum Cepae +Heparin +Allantoin
Strength 100 mg+ 0.278 mg+10 mg
  Dosage form Gel
  Therapeutic Category Antiscar
  Product MagnideTM
Generic Name Magnesium Oxide
Strength 365 mg
Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Mineral
  Product BolardiTM
  Generic Name Saccharomyces boulardii
  Strength 250 mg & 500 mg
  Dosage form Capsule
  Therapeutic Category Antibiotic Associated Illness

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