Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  10     ISSUE:  12  December   2012 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management

A. S. M. Shawkat Ali

MBBS, M Phil





Dear Doctor:

Welcome to this edition of 'e-SQUARE' . Hope you are enjoying this online healthcare bulletin.

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Brain Changes !", "Breast Cancer & Diabetes !", "Lack of Sleep !"Epileptic Seizures !", "Meningitis Risk !", "Heart Risk !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 Brain Changes !

 Brain Changes Continue After Child's Concussion

Brain changes in children who have suffered a concussion continue to occur even after they no longer have symptoms of the injury, according to a new study. The findings highlight the potential benefit of using advanced brain imaging techniques to monitor a child's recovery, said the researcher. The team looked at 15 children, aged 10 to 17, who had recently suffered a mild concussion. Structural changes seen in brain white matter about two weeks after the concussion were still evident more than three months later although the children no longer had any symptoms of their injury. The investigators also found that the extent of white matter changes in the children was larger than what has previously been reported for adults with mild concussion. This suggests that developmental differences in the brain or the musculoskeletal system may make children more susceptible to concussion. These findings may have important implications about when it is truly safe for a child to resume physical activities that may produce a second concussion, potentially further injuring an already vulnerable brain, said the author. Further work is needed to determine whether the changes in white matter present at four months represent a prolonged recovery process or permanent change in the brain, experts said.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2012

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 Breast Cancer & Diabetes !

Study Examines Link Between Breast Cancer and Diabetes

Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for developing diabetes and should be screened for the disease more closely, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed data from 1996 to 2008 from the province of Ontario, Canada, to determine the incidence of diabetes among nearly 25,000 breast cancer survivors aged 55 or older and nearly 125,000 age-matched women without breast cancer. During a median follow-up of more than five years, nearly 10 percent of all the women in the study developed diabetes. Compared to those who had not had breast cancer, the risk of diabetes among breast cancer survivors was 7 percent higher two years after cancer diagnosis and 21 percent higher 10 years after cancer diagnosis, the investigators found. The risk of diabetes, however, decreased over time among breast cancer survivors who had undergone chemotherapy. Their risk compared to women without breast cancer was 24 percent higher in the first two years after cancer diagnosis and 8 percent higher 10 years after cancer diagnosis, according to the study. It is possible that chemotherapy treatment may bring out diabetes earlier in susceptible women. Increased weight gain has been noted after receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer, which may be a factor in the increased risk of diabetes in women receiving treatment, said the study author. Estrogen suppression as a result of chemotherapy may also promote diabetes. The study authors suggested that there may be other factors involved for women who received chemotherapy, including glucocorticoid drugs, which are used to treat nausea in patients receiving chemo and are known to cause spikes in blood sugar. In addition, breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy are monitored more closely and thus are more likely to have diabetes detected, they noted. The researchers said it is unclear why diabetes risk increased over time among breast cancer survivors who did not receive chemotherapy. There is, however, evidence of an association between diabetes and cancer, which may be due to risk factors common to both conditions. One such risk factor is insulin resistance, which predisposes to both diabetes and many types of cancer-initially insulin resistance is associated with high insulin levels and there is evidence that high circulating insulin may increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, it is possible that cancer risk occurs much earlier than diabetes in insulin-resistant individuals, when insulin levels are high. Overall, the findings support a need for closer monitoring of diabetes among breast cancer survivors, researcher concluded. Although the study found an association between diabetes and breast cancer, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2012

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 Lack of Sleep !

Can Teens' Lack of Sleep Lead to Diabetes ?

Getting more sleep may help reduce teens' future risk of developing diabetes, according to a new study. For one week, researchers tracked the amount of sleep and insulin resistance levels in 245 healthy high schools students. Overall, the students averaged 6.4 hours of sleep a night, but got significantly less sleep on school days than on the weekend. Lower amounts of sleep were associated with higher insulin resistance-determined by a blood test-even when taking students' race, age, gender, waist size and body mass index into account, according to the study. High levels of insulin resistance can lead to the development of diabetes, lead author said. Researcher found that if teens normally get six hours of sleep per night get one extra hour of sleep, they would improve insulin resistance by 9 percent. The study is the first in healthy teens to show a link between lower amounts of sleep and insulin resistance that is independent of obesity, according to the investigator. Programs to improve teens' health should include efforts to increase the amounts of sleep they get, the researchers concluded. While the study found an association between lower amounts of sleep and insulin resistance in teens, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, November 2012

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 Epileptic Seizures !

Study Supports Link Between Stress, Epileptic Seizures

Scientists have long thought that stress plays a role in epileptic seizures and new evidence suggests that epilepsy patients experience a different brain response when faced with a nerve-wracking situation. Researchers performed functional MRI brain scans during a stressful math exercise on 16 epilepsy patients who pegged stress as a factor in their seizure control and seven patients who did not. While both groups performed similarly on the test, those who perceived stress to have an impact on their epilepsy showed greater brain activation than the others during intimidating parts of the test. A brain disorder producing repeated seizures, epilepsy affects more than 2 million people in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An estimated 50 million to 65 million people are affected by the condition worldwide. For the new study, all participants were initially given simple subtraction problems to solve and then a ‘stress task’ during which they performed difficult subtraction. Participants were given positive feedback during the easier portion and negative feedback during the difficult section regardless of how well they were actually performing. The brain activation observed on MRI among those who perceived stress to impact their seizures was seen in several regions, including the left temporal lobe, where their epilepsy originated. No such brain activation was noted in the comparison group. Everyone who treats a lot of seizure patients knows that a good proportion blame stress for any breakthrough seizures. This study is the first to truly show there might be some activation issue in the brain that's different in patients who report this problem. Telling patients to reduce their stress to reduce seizures is a good thing to do. Study author agreed that the research needs to be replicated in larger groups of patients, which may point to new ways of controlling or treating seizures. Eventually, if one can characterize the stress response in patients, maybe this can be a way to target different kinds of therapy to help reduce seizure frequency. While the study found an association between stress response and epileptic seizures, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2012

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 Meningitis Risk !

Secondhand Smoke Puts Children at Risk for Meningitis

Exposure to secondhand smoke-during their mother's pregnancy or later in the home-greatly increases children's risk of invasive meningococcal disease, according to a new evidence review. Invasive meningococcal disease is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and can also cause severe illness when bacteria invade the blood, lungs or joints. Children and young adults are particularly at risk. The death rate for meningococcal disease is nearly 5 percent and one in six patients will be left with a severe disability, including neurological or behavioral problems. Researchers reviewed 18 previously published studies and found that exposure to secondhand smoke at home doubled the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children. The risk was even higher for children younger than 5 years old. The results of the review also showed that children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy were three times more likely to develop invasive meningococcal disease than those born into nonsmoking households. Investigators estimate that an extra 630 cases of childhood invasive meningococcal disease every year are directly attributable to secondhand smoke in the U.K. alone. But they cannot be sure exactly how tobacco smoke is affecting these children.  The findings from this study highlight consistent evidence of the further harms of smoking around children and during pregnancy and thus parents and family members should be encouraged to not smoke in the home or around children. Although the researchers found an association between secondhand smoke and invasive meningococcal disease, the evidence review did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship. 

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2012

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 Heart Risks !

Stop-Smoking Drug Varenicline May Carry Heart Risks, FDA Warns

People who take the prescription quit-smoking drug varenicline may be at higher risk for cardiovascular problems and doctors should weigh the risks of the drug against it benefits, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said. A major review of clinical trials that compared patients who took varenicline to patients who took a placebo found that those who took the drug had slightly higher rates of serious cardiovascular events such as nonfatal heart attack, nonfatal stroke and cardiovascular-related death, according to FDA. However, the increased risk among people taking varenicline was not statistically significant, which means that it is unclear whether their increased risk was due to the drug or due to chance, the agency added. Varenicline works by blocking the effects of nicotine on the brain. The FDA first alerted about the possible increased risk of cardiovascular problems associated with varenicline. The agency told the manufacturer of varenicline, to conduct the data review to learn more about possible heart risks associated with the drug. The new findings are similar to those in a clinical trial described in the FDA's June 2011 drug safety communication about varenicline. The warnings and precaution section of the varenicline label has been updated to include the results of the recent review, the FDA said. Doctors should consider the risks and benefits of varenicline before prescribing it for patients. The agency noted that smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease, Varenicline is effective in helping people to stop smoking and quitting smoking brings immediate and significant health benefits. Patients taking varenicline should contact their doctor if they develop new or worsening symptoms of cardiovascular disease such as chest pain, shortness of breath, calf pain when walking or sudden onset of weakness, numbness or difficulty speaking.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2012

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Atreon
  Generic Name Aztreonam
  Strength 500 mg, 1 gm, 2 gm
  Dosage form IM/IV Injection
  Therapeutic Category Monobactam Antibiotic
  Product Iracet
Generic Name



100 mg/ml Inj. and 500 mg, 250 mg Tab.

Dosage form Injection and Tablet
Therapeutic Category Antiepileptic
  Product Vigorex
  Generic Name Sildenafil

50 mg, 100 mg

  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Erectyle Dysfunction

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