Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  10     ISSUE:  9    September  2012 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management

A.S.M. Shawkat Ali

MBBS, M. Phil





Dear Doctor:

Welcome to this edition of 'e-SQUARE' healthcare online !

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Frequent MRI !", "Bottle Feeding !", "Protein In Urine !", "HIV Pill !", "'Happy' Gene !", "Less Is More !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

Please send us your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 Frequent MRI !

 Frequent MRI Scanner Exposure Might Affect Memory: Study

Exposure to magnetic fields generated by MRI scanners may lower a person's mental skills, according to a small new study. The effects were most noticeable in tasks that required high levels of working memory, which could have implications for surgeons and other medical staff who work within the vicinity of MRI scanners, the researchers said. Along with radio waves, MRI uses strong magnetic fields to obtain detailed images of the brain and spine. Three types of magnetic fields-static, switched gradient and radiofrequency are used to create an MRI image. Even when no imaging is taking place, the static magnetic field is always present. Thirty volunteers completed the study. All were exposed to an MRI static magnetic field of zero, 0.5 (medium) and 1 (high). Each exposure was conducted one week apart. After each exposure, the volunteers were given 12 timed mental tasks to test the sorts of skills that a surgeon or other health care professional might use within the area of an MRI scanner. The results showed that the medium and high exposures to the static magnetic field had a significant effect on general functions such as attention, concentration and visual and spatial awareness. After medium and high exposures, volunteers took 5 percent to 21 percent longer to complete complex mental tasks, which rely on working memory. The exact implications and mechanisms of these subtle acute effects in practice remain unclear, researcher said. They noted that the introduction of increasingly powerful MRI machines has raised exposure levels to static magnetic fields for both patients and medical staff. To date, mainly health and safety concerns for patients have been evaluated, but possible consequences are particularly important for professionals since they are repeatedly exposed to static magnetic fields, the investigators noted. While the study found an association between MRI exposure and slower working memory, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2012

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 Bottle Feeding !

 Bottle-Feeding May Raise Baby's Risk for Intestinal Trouble

Infants who are bottle-fed face a higher risk of developing a serious intestinal condition that can lead to surgery, researchers report. With pyloric stenosis, the lower part of the baby's stomach narrows and restricts the amount of food the infant gets and results in forceful vomiting, dehydration and salt and fluid imbalances. The reason it develops is unknown, but bottle-feeding has been suggested as a possible risk factor, the study authors noted. Bottle-feeding is a rather strong risk factor for pyloric stenosis and this adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breast-feeding in the first months of life, said lead author. Pyloric stenosis is a severe and potentially fatal condition. It is the most common cause of gastrointestinal obstruction in early childhood and the most common condition requiring surgery in the first months of life. Although etiology of pyloric stenosis remains unclear. But the results of this study contributes with new insight into the etiology of pyloric stenosis and brings us closer to solving the enigma of its development. To look at the connection between bottle-feeding and pyloric stenosis, researchers used data on more than 70,000 infants to identify 65 who had to have surgery for pyloric stenosis. Of these infants, 29 had been bottle-fed. The researchers found bottle-feeding increased the odds of developing pyloric stenosis 4.6-fold. Moreover, the risk was seen even when the baby was breast-fed before being bottle-fed and it started within 30 days after bottle-feeding began, they noted. Although this finding only shows an association between bottle-feeding and pyloric stenosis and not a cause-and-effect link, it suggests that breast milk is protective against this disease, investigator added.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, September 2012

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 Protein in Urine !

                                                    In Diabetes, Any Protein in Urine May Signal Heart Risk

Any amount of measurable protein in the urine even if it is within the normal range may increase the risk of heart problems in people with type 2 diabetes, according to a new study. The findings could help identify patients who should be treated with heart protective drugs, the researchers said. Some diabetes patients have kidney problems that lead to increased amounts of the protein- albumin in their urine, a condition called albuminuria. These patients have a considerably higher risk of heart problems such as heart attack, stroke and heart failure than diabetes patients or people in the general population with normal urinary albumin levels. At least 90 percent of diabetes patients have normal urinary albumin levels, but researchers wanted to find out if even they might be at increased risk for heart problems. The investigators examined the relationship between albumin levels and heart problems in more than 1,200 type 2 diabetes patients who were followed for an average of about nine years. They found that any amount of measurable albumin excretion in the urine was associated with significant heart risks. As the level of albumin excreted in urine rose, so too did the patient's risk for heart problems. Even slight elevations in excreted albumin were linked to raised odds for heart trouble, researchers found. However, although an association was noted between albuminuria and heart troubles, the study did not prove cause and effect. The researchers also looked at a subgroup of patients who took high blood pressure drugs called ACE inhibitors from the start of the study and throughout the follow-up period. There was no link between albumin excretion levels and heart risks in this group. This suggests that ACE inhibitors may help protect the hearts of both diabetes patients with albuminuria and those with normal albumin levels, researchers noted. The study authors also suggested that further research is needed to determine the levels of albumin excretion that warrant treatment with heart-protective drugs.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2012

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 HIV Pill !

FDA Approves New Once-a-Day HIV Pill

A new pill to treat HIV infection that combines four medicines and only has to be taken once a day was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Stribild, contains the HIV drugs elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. It will be prescribed to people who have never been treated for HIV infection. Two of the drugs, elvitegravir and cobicistat, are new, the FDA noted. Elvitegravir interferes with one of the enzymes that HIV needs to multiply, while cobicistat inhibits an enzyme that metabolizes certain HIV drugs and so prolongs the effect of elvitegravir. The combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is already marketed and they work in concert to block another enzyme that HIV needs to replicate. Through continued research and drug development, treatment for those infected with HIV has evolved from multi-pill regimens to single-pill regimens. New combination HIV drugs like Stribild will help simplify treatment regimens. Earlier this year, the agency approved the first over-the-counter rapid HIV test for home use and gave its blessing to the first drug to be used to prevent HIV infection when used together with safe sex practices. Two clinical trials found between 88 percent and 90 percent of patients treated with Stribild had an undetectable amount of HIV in their blood after 48 weeks of treatment, the FDA said. The drug will carry a boxed warning that says it can cause a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and severe liver problems, both of which can be fatal. In the clinical trials, common side effects included nausea and diarrhea. Serious side effects include new or worsening kidney problems, decreased bone mineral density, fat redistribution and changes in the immune system, the FDA noted. The FDA also mentioned to conduct more research to further determine the drug's safety in women and children, how resistance develops to Stribild and possible interactions with other drugs.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2012

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 'Happy' Gene !

Scientists Identified 'Happy' Gene in Women

A ‘happy’ gene that affects females but not males may explain why women are often happier than men, research suggests. In the new study, researchers analyzed data from 193 women and 152 men who were assessed for happiness and underwent DNA testing as part of a long-term study of mental health. The team focused on the ‘monoamine oxidase A’ (MAOA) gene, which regulates an enzyme that breaks down brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, ‘feel-good’. One version of the MAOA gene raises levels of monoamine, which allows larger amounts of these neurotransmitters to remain in the brain and boost mood. The researchers found that women with the low-expression version of the MAOA gene were much happier than other women. Compared to women with no copies of the low-expression version, those with one copy scored higher on the happiness scale and those with two copies scored even higher. A large number of men carried the low-expression version of the MAOA gene, but they were not happier than those without it, the investigators found. This is the first happiness gene for women, lead author said. Women have higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, but tend to have greater overall life happiness than men, according to background information in the study. The reason for this is unclear but this new finding may help to explain the gender difference and provide more insight into the link between specific genes and human happiness. The reason for the gender difference found in this study may be partly due to the hormone testosterone, the study authors suggested. Men have much higher amounts of testosterone than women and the hormone may cancel out the happiness effect of the low-expression version of MAOA in men, the researchers noted.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2012

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 Less Is More !

Less Is More With Exercise, Study Says

Thirty minutes of daily exercise achieves the same amount of weight loss as 60 minutes, according to a small new study. The research included 60 heavy but healthy volunteers exercised for either 30 or 60 minutes a day while wearing a heart-rate monitor and calorie counter. The training sessions were designed to generate a light sweat, but the participants were expected to boost the intensity and push themselves harder three times a week. The men who exercised 30 minutes a day lost an average of about 8 pounds over three months, compared with an average of 6 pounds for those who exercised 60 minutes a day. Participants exercising 30 minutes per day burned relatively more calories than they should. Researchers observed that exercising for a whole hour instead of a half does not provide any additional loss in either body weight or fat. Volunteers who exercised the most lost too little relative to the energy they burned by running, biking or rowing. Thirty minutes of concentrated exercise gives equally good results on the scale. Investigator suggested that the surprising results may be due to the fact that doing just 30 minutes of exercise left participants with the desire and energy to do more physical activity after their required exercise sessions. In addition, it's likely that the person who did 60 minutes of exercise daily ate more and therefore lost slightly less weight than anticipated.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, August 2012

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Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Iventi  IV Infusion
  Generic Name Moxifloxacin
  Strength 1.6 mg/ml
  Dosage form IV Infusion
  Therapeutic Category Quinolone Antibiotics
  Product Pentadol
Generic Name Tapentadol
Strength 50 mg
Dosage form Tablet
Therapeutic Category Non Narcotic Analgesics
  Product Norpil 1
  Generic Name Levonorgestrel
  Strength 1.5 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Emergency Contraceptive Pill

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