Healthcare online Keeping you up-to-date
VOL.  9     ISSUE:  12   2011 Medical Services Department

SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.





P G Dip. Business Management

A. S. M. Shawkat Ali

MBBS, M Phil





Dear Doctor:

Welcome to this edition of 'e-SQUARE' . Hope you are enjoying this online healthcare bulletin.

Our current issue focused on some interesting features like

"Very Preterm Boys !", "Artificial Windpipe !", "Childhood Abuse !"Blood Clot Risk !", "Resting Heart Rate !", "Spouse's Reaction !".

In our regular feature, we have some new products information of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as well.

We will appreciate your feedback !

Click on to reply mode.

Yours sincerely,


Editorial Team

Reply Mode      : e-square@squaregroup.com

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of its editor or SQUARE PHARMACEUTICALS LTD.

 Very Preterm Boys !

 Very Preterm Boys Less Likely to Survive Than Girls

Babies born extremely early have much better survival odds now than in years past, but boys seem to be lagging behind girls, a new study finds. Australian researchers found that of more than 2,500 infants born very preterm in the 28th week of pregnancy or earlier. Boys had a somewhat lower survival rate and were more likely to have long-term neurological problems like blindness, deafness or cerebral palsy. Of 1,394 baby boys, 23 percent died in the hospital, compared with 19 percent of girls. The extreme preemie boys also had a higher rate of moderate to severe "functional disability" by the time they were three years old. Those problems including blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy and mental retardation affected nearly 20 percent of boys, versus 12 percent of girls. The findings underscore that while "much progress" has been made in helping the tiniest preemies survive and thrive, those infants still face considerable risks, researchers noted. Pregnancy normally lasts about 40 weeks. Babies born before the 37th week are considered ‘preterm’, with those born before the 34th week being ‘early preterm’. It's well known that the earlier an infant comes into the world, the greater its risks of death or long-term health problems. It's not clear, though, why very early birth seems more dangerous for boys than girls. The Y chromosome, which determines male sex, also influences certain health factors. It's known, for instance, that more male fetuses than female are lost to miscarriage. Problems in the cardiovascular system, like blood pressure dysfunction, are more common the earlier an infant is born. If boys are less able to handle those problems, it might help explain why the gender gaps were seen in the very earliest births, but those gaps closed at week 27. Researcher said the most important thing for women is to go into pregnancy as healthy as possible, at a healthy weight and not smoking. Get good prenatal care and if a woman notices changes that could signal preterm labor, she should tell her doctor right away. Treatment with (prenatal) steroids 48 hours prior to delivery and magnesium sulphate four hours prior to delivery may reduce mortality and long-term neurological risk, the author said. The findings are based on records from 2,549 infants admitted to 10 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Australia between 1998 and 2004.

SOURCE: Reuters Health, December 2011

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 Artificial Windpipe !

1st Artificial Windpipe Made With Stem Cells Seems Successful

A 36-year-old man with an inoperable tumor in his trachea (windpipe) has received the world's first artificial trachea made with stem cells. A golf ball-sized tumor on his trachea had begun to restrict his breathing. In a 12-hour procedure, doctors completely removed the affected area of his trachea and replaced it with an artificial one. The artificial trachea was custom-made using three-dimensional imaging. First, a glass model was built to help shape an artificial scaffold. Stem cells were then inserted into the scaffold to create a functioning airway, the authors explained. The scientists said their technique is an improvement over other methods because they used the patient's own cells to create the airway so there is no risk of rejection and the patient does not have to take immunosuppressive drugs. In addition, the trachea was custom-made it would be an ideal fit for the patient's body size and shape and would eliminate the need to remain on a waiting list for a human donor. The patient has been doing great for the last four months and has been able to live a normal life. Though the technique shows promise, but more research must be done to fully evaluate its safety and effectiveness. Researcher will continue to improve the regenerative medicine approaches for transplanting the windpipe and extend it to the lungs, heart and esophagus. And investigate whether cell therapy could be applied to irreversible diseases of the major airways and lungs. To be adjudged successful, bioartificial organs must function over a long time, short-term clinical function is an important achievement, but is only one measure of success. Choice of ideal scaffold material, optimum cell source, well-defined tissue culture conditions and perioperative management pose several questions to be answered before the line to broader clinical application of any bioartificial graft can be crossed safely and confidently, researcher concluded.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, November 2011

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 Childhood Abuse !

Abuse in Childhood May Alter Teen Brain

A new study finds abuse in childhood may be associated with changes in the teenage brain. The research found that teens who've been abused or neglected have less "gray matter" in some areas of the brain than those who haven't been subjected to maltreatment. Forty-two adolescents involved in the study had a history of abuse or neglect. They also had reductions of gray matter in the brain, even though they had not been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, the researchers said. The affected brain areas may differ between boys and girls and may depend on whether the teens were exposed to abuse or neglect or whether the neglect was physical or emotional, the researchers noted. Reductions in gray matter were seen in the prefrontal areas of the brain, no matter whether the teen had suffered physical abuse or emotional neglect. But reductions of gray matter in other areas of the brain depended on the type of maltreatment. For example, emotional neglect was associated with less gray matter in areas of the brain that regulate emotion. In boys, reductions in gray matter tended to be concentrated in areas of the brain associated with impulse control or substance abuse. In girls, reductions were in areas of the brain linked to depression. These findings could help to explain their trouble with school performance or increase their vulnerability to depression and behavioral difficulties. Researcher emphasized that this gray matter reduction likely is not permanent.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2011

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 Blood Clot Risk !

Low Iron Levels May Increase Blood Clot Risk

Low levels of iron in the blood are associated with an increased risk of dangerous blood clots that form in a vein, according to the results of a new study that included patients with an inherited blood vessel disease. Treating iron deficiency may help prevent the condition known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), according to the researchers. DVT typically occurs in the legs and can cause pain and swelling and can be fatal if a blood clot dislodges and travels into the blood vessels of the lungs. Major surgery, immobility and cancer are recognized risk factors for blood clots, but there is no clear cause in many cases. The new study included 609 patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a genetic disease of the blood vessels that causes excessive bleeding from the nose and gut. Many HHT patients have low iron levels due to the loss of iron through bleeding. Patients in the study with low iron levels were at increased risk for blood clots, but those who took iron supplements did not have a higher risk. This suggests that treating iron deficiency may help prevent DVT in the general population, the researchers said. There are small studies in the general population which would support these findings, but more studies are needed to confirm this. If the finding does apply to the general population, it would have important implications in almost every area of medicine, researchers added. About one billion people worldwide are believed to have iron deficiency anemia, according to the researchers.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2011

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 Resting Heart Rate !

Jump in Resting Heart Rate Might Signal Higher Death Risk

A rise in resting heart rate during middle age signals an increased risk of dying from heart disease, new research indicates. People whose heart rates increased from under 70 beats per minute to more than 85 beats per minute over 10 years had a 90 percent increased risk of dying from heart disease compared to people whose heart rates stayed around 70 beats per minute, according to the large study. Resting heart rate is one of the simplest measures in medicine and everyone can do that by themselves at home. From cross-sectional studies, it is known that a person's resting heart rate is related to the relative risk of premature cardiovascular disease and death. Researchers suggest that resting heart rate may be an important prognostic marker for ischemic heart disease and total mortality. Changes in resting heart rate may signal the need for lifestyle changes. Multiple factors that can influence heart rate include genetics, age, obesity, activity level, diet and whether or not someone smokes. The current study included nearly 13,500 men and 16,000 women. Al of them had no known heart disease at the beginning of the study. The average age of participants was about 52 years at the start of the study. Resting heart rate measurements were taken at the start of the study and then again about 10 years later. After 12 years of follow-up, 3,038 study participants had died. Nearly 400 deaths were from heart disease. Compared to people whose heart rate was consistent at less than 70 beats per minute at both readings, those whose rates increased from less than 70 beats per minute to more than 85 beats per minute had a 90 percent higher risk of death from heart disease. In those whose heart rates started at between 70 and 85 beats per minute, an increase to more than 85 beats per minute at the follow-up reading signaled an 80 percent increase in the risk of heart disease mortality, reports the study. The change in heart rate may signal underlying heart disease that is currently going unrecognized, said the author. It's not clear from this study whether reducing resting heart rate will reduce the risk of death. People should know their heart rates over time. And, if there any changes, let their doctor know. Maintain a healthy weight, eat healthier foods and don't smoke, researcher added.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2011

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 Spouse's Reaction !

Spouse's Reaction May Affect Pain Management

Chronic pain can hinder communication between spouses, which, in turn, can impair the affected partner's ability to cope with the pain, according to a new study. Previous research has shown that validation of a spouse's emotions (showing respect and acceptance) promotes emotional control, trust and closeness, while invalidation of emotions (showing hostility or no interest) increases emotional distance and is associated with poor adjustment within the marriage and depression. This new study included 78 U.S. adults with chronic pain and their spouses. Women accounted for 58 percent of the spouses with pain. Low back pain was the most common type of major pain and the leading diagnoses were osteoarthritis, disc problems and fibromyalgia. The participants were interviewed for three hours, with the final 15 minutes focused on a difficult topic, such as family finances. The couples were told to discuss and make progress toward resolving the issue. The researchers found that husbands with pain were more likely to respond negatively to invalidation from their spouse. The finding that men, either as the spouse with or without pain, seemed to be more sensitive to their partners' responses surprised the researchers. Previous studies found that women are more likely to experience greater pain, distress and depression. It may be that pain is more disruptive to a husband's traditional roles, such as being the family provider, according to study author. This may make a man more vulnerable to emotional upset in response to invalidation from his spouse, said the researchers. The study authors added that their findings show patient gender is an important factor when assessing and treating pain patients and couples. Interventions should be aimed at the couples, not just the pain patient, they concluded.

SOURCE: HealthDay News, December 2011

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New Products of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  Product Femastin®
  Generic Name Estriol
  Strength 1 mg
  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Estrogen
  Product Dyvon Plus®
Generic Name

Calcipotriol Betamethasone Dipropionate


20 gm

Dosage form Ointment
Therapeutic Category Corticosteroid Combination
  Product Siglita®
  Generic Name Sitagliptin

100 mg

  Dosage form Tablet
  Therapeutic Category Oral Antidiabetic Drugs

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